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Grid cells in the rat entorhinal cortex display strikingly regular firing responses to the animal's position in 2-D space and have been hypothesized to form the neural substrate for dead-reckoning. However, errors accumulate rapidly when velocity inputs are integrated in existing models of grid cell activity. To produce grid-cell-like responses, these(More)
We characterize the relationship between the simultaneously recorded quantities of rodent grid cell firing and the position of the rat. The formalization reveals various properties of grid cell activity when considered as a neural code for representing and updating estimates of the rat's location. We show that, although the spatially periodic response of(More)
Sequential neural activity patterns are as ubiquitous as the outputs they drive, which include motor gestures and sequential cognitive processes. Neural sequences are long, compared to the activation durations of participating neurons, and sequence coding is sparse. Numerous studies demonstrate that spike-time-dependent plasticity (STDP), the primary known(More)
We review progress on the modeling and theoretical fronts in the quest to unravel the computational properties of the grid cell code and to explain the mechanisms underlying grid cell dynamics. The goals of the review are to outline a coherent framework for understanding the dynamics of grid cells and their representation of space; to critically present and(More)
We present a method of estimating the gradient of an objective function with respect to the synaptic weights of a spiking neural network. The method works by measuring the fluctuations in the objective function in response to dynamic perturbation of the membrane conductances of the neurons. It is compatible with recurrent networks of conductance-based model(More)
We examined simultaneously recorded spikes from multiple rat grid cells, to explain mechanisms underlying their activity. Among grid cells with similar spatial periods, the population activity was confined to lie close to a two-dimensional (2D) manifold: grid cells differed only along two dimensions of their responses and otherwise were nearly identical.(More)
We propose a model of songbird learning that focuses on avian brain areas HVC and RA, involved in song production, and area LMAN, important for generating song variability. Plasticity at HVC --> RA synapses is driven by hypothetical "rules" depending on three signals: activation of HVC --> RA synapses, activation of LMAN --> RA synapses, and reinforcement(More)
Sparse neural codes have been widely observed in cortical sensory and motor areas. A striking example of sparse temporal coding is in the song-related premotor area high vocal center (HVC) of songbirds: The motor neurons innervating avian vocal muscles are driven by premotor nucleus robustus archistriatalis (RA), which is in turn driven by nucleus HVC.(More)
Neural noise limits the fidelity of representations in the brain. This limitation has been extensively analyzed for sensory coding. However, in short-term memory and integrator networks, where noise accumulates and can play an even more prominent role, much less is known about how neural noise interacts with neural and network parameters to determine the(More)