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The mammalian Y chromosome has unique characteristics compared with the autosomes or X chromosomes. Here we report the finished sequence of the chimpanzee Y chromosome (PTRY), including 271 kb of the Y-specific pseudoautosomal region 1 and 12.7 Mb of the male-specific region of the Y chromosome. Greater sequence divergence between the human Y chromosome(More)
To develop a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that produces ethanol directly from starch, two integrative vectors were constructed to allow the simultaneous multiple integration of the Aspergillus awamori glucoamylase gene (GA1) and the Debaryomyces occidentalis α-amylase gene (AMY) and glucoamylase with debranching activity gene (GAM1) into the(More)
Baicalein, one of the major flavonoids in Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese Skullcap), is well known for its effects on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammation. Here we show that baicalein also inhibits the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Baicalein inhibited triglyceride accumulation during adipogenesis and significantly decreased the mRNA(More)
AIMS The phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) family is related to tumorigenesis and metastasis in various cancer types. Its overexpression increases cell motility and proliferation via the downregulation of p21 expression. In a previous study, we reported that PRL-1 downregulates p53 and is a target gene of p53. In this study, we investigated whether a(More)
We sequenced a 208-kb BAC clone spanning the bovine prion protein (PRNP) locus, and compared the genomic structure with that of human. As a result, we determined the precise breakpoint between the two syntenic genomes, located on the 5' UTR of the PRNP gene, and discovered two highly repetitive sequences near the breakpoint. Further analysis demonstrated(More)
Although regulation of chondrogenesis and cartilage development by Wnt signaling is well established, the function of Wnt in the maintenance and destruction of cartilage remains largely unknown. Here we investigated the involvement and regulatory mechanisms of Wnt signaling in cartilage destruction. We found that interleukin-1beta, the primary(More)
Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is a transcription factor essential to the control of cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, immune response, and inflammation. Constitutive NF-kappaB activation has been observed in a broad variety of solid tumors and hematological malignancies, which suggests that NF-kappaB signaling may perform a critical role(More)
Clonorchis sinensis, the Chinese liver fluke, is the causative agent of clonorchiasis as well as liver and biliary diseases. The excretory-secretory products (ESPs) of the parasites play important roles in host-parasite interactions. In this study, we have investigated the proteome of ESPs obtained from C. sinensis adult worms. Although the full genome(More)
Industrial strains of a polyploid, distiller’s Saccharomyces cerevisiae that produces glucoamylase and α-amylase was used for the direct fermentation of raw starch to ethanol. Strains contained either Aspergillus awamori glucoamylase gene (GA1), Debaryomyces occidentalis glucoamylase gene (GAM1) or D. occidentalis α-amylase gene (AMY), singly or in(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) in articular chondrocytes regulates differentiation, survival, and inflammatory responses by modulating ERK-1 and -2, p38 kinase, and protein kinase C (PKC) alpha and zeta. In this study, we investigated the effects of the actin cytoskeletal architecture on NO-induced dedifferentiation, apoptosis, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression, and(More)