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Clonorchis sinensis, the Chinese liver fluke, is the causative agent of clonorchiasis as well as liver and biliary diseases. The excretory-secretory products (ESPs) of the parasites play important roles in host-parasite interactions. In this study, we have investigated the proteome of ESPs obtained from C. sinensis adult worms. Although the full genome(More)
To develop a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that produces ethanol directly from starch, two integrative vectors were constructed to allow the simultaneous multiple integration of the Aspergillus awamori glucoamylase gene (GA1) and the Debaryomyces occidentalis α-amylase gene (AMY) and glucoamylase with debranching activity gene (GAM1) into the(More)
The mammalian Y chromosome has unique characteristics compared with the autosomes or X chromosomes. Here we report the finished sequence of the chimpanzee Y chromosome (PTRY), including 271 kb of the Y-specific pseudoautosomal region 1 and 12.7 Mb of the male-specific region of the Y chromosome. Greater sequence divergence between the human Y chromosome(More)
Although retinoic acid (RA) is well known to inhibit the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes both in vivo and in vitro, its molecular mechanism is not fully understood. In this report, we investigate the inhibitory mechanism of adipocyte differentiation by RA in 3T3-L1 cells. Because both RA and Wnt are known to inhibit adipogenesis at a common(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) is a well-known regulator of chondrocyte phenotype. RA inhibits chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal cells and also causes loss of differentiated chondrocyte phenotype. The present study investigated the mechanisms underlying RA regulation of chondrogenesis. RA treatment in chondrifying mesenchymal cells did not affect precartilage(More)
Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is a transcription factor essential to the control of cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, immune response, and inflammation. Constitutive NF-kappaB activation has been observed in a broad variety of solid tumors and hematological malignancies, which suggests that NF-kappaB signaling may perform a critical role(More)
Although regulation of chondrogenesis and cartilage development by Wnt signaling is well established, the function of Wnt in the maintenance and destruction of cartilage remains largely unknown. Here we investigated the involvement and regulatory mechanisms of Wnt signaling in cartilage destruction. We found that interleukin-1beta, the primary(More)
Ethanol production using hemicelluloses has recently become a focus of many researchers. In order to promote D: -xylose fermentation, we cloned the bacterial xylA gene encoding for xylose isomerase with 434 amino acid residues from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and successfully expressed it in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a non-xylose assimilating yeast. The(More)
A decreased production of interferon gamma (IFNG) has been observed in acute schizophrenia. In order to explore the possible relationship between IFNG and schizophrenia, we attempted to analyze the differentially expressed proteins in the brains of interferon-gamma knockout (Ifng-KO) mice. Five upregulated and five downregulated proteins were identified(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) in articular chondrocytes regulates differentiation, survival, and inflammatory responses by modulating ERK-1 and -2, p38 kinase, and protein kinase C (PKC) alpha and zeta. In this study, we investigated the effects of the actin cytoskeletal architecture on NO-induced dedifferentiation, apoptosis, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression, and(More)