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Oxidative stress may underlie age-dependent memory loss and cognitive decline. Toxic aldehydes, including 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), an end product of lipid peroxides, are known to accumulate in the brain in neurodegenerative disease. We have previously shown that mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) detoxifies HNE by oxidizing its aldehyde group.(More)
Molecular hydrogen serves as an antioxidant that reduces hydroxyl radicals, but not the other reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. In the past year, molecular hydrogen has been reported to prevent or ameliorate eight diseases in rodents and one in human associated with oxidative stress. In Parkinson's disease, mitochondrial dysfunction and the associated(More)
We have reported that hydrogen (H(2)) acts as an efficient antioxidant by gaseous rapid diffusion. When water saturated with hydrogen (hydrogen water) was placed into the stomach of a rat, hydrogen was detected at several microM level in blood. Because hydrogen gas is unsuitable for continuous consumption, we investigated using mice whether drinking(More)
Chronic stress impairs cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis. This impairment is attributed to increases in oxidative stress, which result in the accumulation of lipid peroxide. On the other hand, voluntary exercise enhances cognitive function, hippocampal neurogenesis, and antioxidant capacity in normal animals. However, the effects of voluntary(More)
Recent reports on amyloid beta peptide (A beta) binding-alcohol dehydrogenase (ABAD) have revealed the link of A beta with oxidative stress derived from mitochondria in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a novel function of ABAD, we speculate that ABAD may detoxify aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE). To verify this speculation, we(More)
Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) plays a major role in acetaldehyde detoxification. The alcohol sensitivity is associated with a genetic deficiency of ALDH2. We have previously reported that this deficiency influences the risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. However, the biological effects of the deficiency on neuronal cells are poorly(More)
PURPOSE Retinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury by transient elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) is known to induce neuronal damage through the generation of reactive oxygen species. Study results have indicated that molecular hydrogen (H(2)) is an efficient antioxidant gas that selectively reduces the hydroxyl radical (*OH) and suppresses oxidative(More)
Inosine, a breakdown product of adenosine, has recently been shown to exert immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects. We show here that the oral administration of inosine has antidepressant-like effects in two animal models. Inosine significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth and viability of primary cultured neocortical neurons, which was suppressed by(More)
OBJECTIVE Survivin has been identified as a protein expressed in cancer cells and a member of the inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein family. Recent studies suggest that the expression of survivin increases during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, and may be used in clinical prognosis. We examined whether survivin expression in human gliomas would be a(More)