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Aedes japonicus (Theobald) was evaluated for competence as a vector of Japanese encephalitis virus and for its ability to transmit the virus vertically to its F1 larvae. Ae. japonicus supported the growth of the virus at 20 and 28 degrees C after feeding on a virus-blood mixture of 10(6.2) plaque forming unit (PFU)/ml. This species was able to transmit the(More)
A case of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has not been reported for many years in Japan, although a serological survey of sera from domestic animals suggested the presence of TBE foci in Hokkaido, the northern island of Japan. Studies were conducted to prove the presence of an endemic focus of TBE virus in Japan by means of serology and virus isolation. In(More)
In this study, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) viruses from Siberia and far-eastern Asia were characterized in order to determine virus subtype distribution. TBE viruses were isolated from ticks (Ixodes persulcatus) collected in the far-eastern (Khabarovsk and Vladivostok) and Siberian (Irkutsk) regions of Russia in 1999. Phylogenetic analysis showed that(More)
Two New York (NY) strains of the West Nile (WN) virus were plaque-purified and four variants that had different amino acid sequences at the N-linked glycosylation site in the envelope (E) protein sequence were isolated. The E protein was glycosylated in only two of these strain variants. To determine the relationship between E protein glycosylation and(More)
Bovine lactoferrin (LF) and ribavirin (Rbv) were tested as antiviral agents against Seoul type hantavirus (SR-11 strain) in vitro. Hantaviral foci number in Vero E6 cells infected with SR-11 was reduced with LF treatment by 5 days post infection to obtain a 50% effective dose (ED50) of 2500 microg/ml, while pretreatment with LF was highly efficacious having(More)
In order to establish a firm preventive measure for tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Japan, we evaluated the immune response of European vaccine against Japanese TBE virus strain (Oshima 5-10) for man and mouse. Furthermore, the efficacy of pre- and post-exposure protection by a polyclonal rabbit anti-TBE virus serum was examined in the mouse model. 80% of(More)
Hantaan (HTN) virus, the etiologic agent of clinically severe hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), was first isolated in 1976 from lung tissue of a striped-field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) captured in Songnae-ri, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. Found primarily in mountainous areas, the Korean field mouse (A. peninsulae) is the second-most(More)
We have previously reported that tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is endemic in a specific area of Hokkaido, Japan. In Oshima, the southern part of Hokkaido, TBE virus was isolated from sentinel dogs, ticks and rodents in 1995 and 1996. To identify when these TBE viruses emerged in Hokkaido, the times of divergence of TBE virus strains isolated in Oshima and(More)
The pathogenic characteristics of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus strain (Oshima 5-10) isolated from a sentinel dog in Hokkaido, Japan, was compared by use of a mouse model with several inoculation routes to other strains of TBE virus (the Far Eastern subtype; Sofjin strain and the Western subtype; Hochosterwitz strain) and TBE complex virus (Langat(More)