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Different colors, such as purple, brown, red and white, occur in the pericarp of rice. Here, two genes affecting proanthocyanidin synthesis in red- and brown-colored rice were elucidated. Genetic segregation analysis suggested that the Rd and A loci are identical, and both encode dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR). The introduction of the DFR gene into an(More)
Stabilization of the levels of active oxygen species (AOS) is important to the survival of organisms. To clarify the system controlling levels of AOS in plants, this study used an electron spin resonance (ESR) method to directly measure superoxide radical (O(2)(.-)) scavenging activities in the wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana (Col and Ler ecotypes), two(More)
Absorption of acylated anthocyanins in purple-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cv. Ayamurasaki) in rats was studied to obtain evidence that the acylated anthocyanins themselves could exert a physiological function in vivo. Peonidin 3-caffeoylsophoroside-5-glucoside (Pn 3-Caf*sop-5-glc) in purple-fleshed sweet potato was directly absorbed into rat and(More)
1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the 70% aqueous acetone extract from the seed coat of the brown soybean variety, Akita-Zairai, was investigated. The activity of the seed coat of Akita-Zairai was much higher than that of three other reddish-brown varieties, but lower than that of two black varieties, and was closely(More)
The development of cleavage stage preimplantation embryos is disrupted by exposure to heat shock, such as high temperatures in the summer season. In this study, we investigated whether addition of anthocyanins, which are strong scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS), improves development and intracellular redox status of heat-exposed bovine(More)
The extracts from white-, black-, and red-hulled rice were prepared by sequential extraction with six different polar solvents, and their radical-scavenging activities were measured by methods using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH*) and tert-butyl hydroperoxyl radical (t-BuOO*). The extracts prepared with highly polar solvents, methanol and(More)
Photodegradation of methyl mercury (MeHg) and ethyl Hg (EtHg) in sea water was studied by sunlight or ultraviolet (UV) light exposure, and by determining inorganic Hg produced by degradation. Sea water containing 1 μM MeHg or EtHg was exposed to sunlight or UV light. N-Acetyl-l-cysteine was added to the solution for preventing Hg loss during the light(More)
Degradation of methyl mercury (MeHg) and ethyl Hg (EtHg) with oxygen free radicals was studied in vitro by using three well-known hydroxyl radical (•OH)-producing systems, namely Cu2+-ascorbate, xanthine oxidase (XOD)-hypoxanthine (HPX)-Fe(III)EDTA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-ultraviolet light B. For this purpose, the direct determination method for(More)
Degradation of methyl mercury (MeHg) and ethyl Hg (EtHg) with reactive oxygens was studied in vitro by using peroxidase-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-halide and rose bengal-ultraviolet light A systems. For this purpose, the direct determination method for inorganic Hg was employed. Both systems could effectively degrade EtHg, and MeHg to some extent. Degradation(More)
In connection with the dealkylation of methyl mercury (MeHg) and ethyl Hg (EtHg) with reactive oxygen-producing systems, we examined the ability of phagocytic cells to degrade MeHg or EtHg into inorganic mercury in vitro by collecting them from blood or peritoneal cavity of several species of animal. EtHg was readily degraded by human polymorphonuclear(More)