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Using frequency-modulated echolocation, bats can discriminate the range of objects with an accuracy of less than a millimeter. However, bats' echolocation mechanism is not well understood. The delay separation of three or more closely spaced objects can be determined through analysis of the echo spectrum. However, delay times cannot be properly correlated(More)
Bats, using frequency-modulated echolocation sounds, can capture a moving target in real 3D space. The process by which they are able to accomplish this, however, is not completely understood. This work offers and analyzes a model for description of one mechanism that may play a role in the echolocation process of real bats. This mechanism allows for the(More)
Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) emit trains of brief, wideband frequency-modulated (FM) echolocation sounds and use echoes of these sounds to orient, find insects, and guide flight through vegetation. They are observed to emit sounds that alternate between short and long inter-pulse intervals (IPIs), forming sonar sound groups. The occurrence of these(More)
Species with fission-fusion social systems tend to exchange individualized contact calls to maintain group cohesion. Signature whistles by bottlenose dolphins are unique compared to the contact calls of other non-human animals in that they include identity information independent of voice cues. Further, dolphins copy the signatures of conspecifics and use(More)
Ultraviolet B radiation (UVB, 290-320 nm) is a ubiquitous environmental agent and the skin is almost always under the influence of UVB to some extent. Numerous effects of UVB on human skin have been reported, including inflammation, pigmentation, modulation of immune function and carcinogenesis [12, 15]. With respect to the modulating effect of UVB on(More)
Automatic acoustic detection and tracking were useful methods for understanding the behavior and population of marine animals. The seismometer and hydrophones were set in the ocean bottom off Kushiro in Japan. The acoustic data were recorded at a sampling frequency of 100 samples per second by 4 ocean bottom hydrophones. The fin whale calls, consisting a(More)
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, a lymphocytic leukemia caused by human T-cell lymphoma virus-I (HTLV-I), is prevalent in southwestern Japan. A Japanese woman with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in the third trimester of pregnancy was delivered of an infant by cesarean section. She did not breast-feed the child, who has remained free from HTLV-I infection.
The glycogen content and glycogen synthetase and glycogen phosphorylase levels were studied in endometrial samples obtained from 19 normal and 37 infertile patients during the menstrual cycle before and after administration of progestogen. Each of the above groups received the progestogen Lyndiol (lynestrenol, 5.0 mg, and mestranol, 0.15 mg) daily for 7(More)
Bats use frequency-modulated echolocation to identify and capture moving objects in real three-dimensional space. The big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, emits linear period modulation sound, and is capable of locating static objects with a range accuracy of less than 1 μs. A previously introduced model can estimate ranges of multiple, static objects using(More)
Behavioral experiments indicate that dolphins detect and discriminate prey targets through echolocating broadband sonar signals. The fish echo contains components from multiple reflections, including those from the swim bladder and other organs, and can be used for the identification of fish species and the estimation of fish abundance. In this paper,(More)