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The maintenance of energy homeostasis is essential for life, and its dysregulation leads to a variety of metabolic disorders. Under a fed condition, mammals utilize glucose as the main metabolic fuel, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by the colonic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber also contribute a significant proportion of daily energy(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), a member of the PPAR family, increase levels of CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cultured endothelium, suggesting a mechanism by which it may exert its protective effect within the brain. These properties raise the question of whether a PPARgamma agonist may(More)
Benzbromarone, a uricosuric drug, reportedly causes hepatic hypertrophy accompanied by proliferation of peroxisomes in rats. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying induction of peroxisome proliferation by benzbromarone, we examined binding affinity for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and gamma (PPARgamma), and effects on the(More)
In this study, we examined alterations in the enzymatic antioxidant defenses associated with learning deficits induced by type 2 diabetes, and studied the effects of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist pioglitazone on these learning deficits. Learning ability was assessed by visual discrimination tasks in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima(More)
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and its hydrolysates are considered to stimulate intestinal lipid absorption, however, their exact effects on lipoproteins and apolipoprotein (apo) metabolism remain ambiguous. This study aimed to further differentiate the effects of them using fully differentiated enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. Lipid micelles (oleic acid 0.6,(More)
Feeding and the circadian system regulate lipid absorption and metabolism, and the expression of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism is believed to be directly controlled by the clock system. To investigate the interaction between the lipid metabolism system and the circadian system, we analyzed the effect of a CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer on the(More)
Recommended by Howard Glauert Statins increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) mRNA expression, but the mechanism of this increased PPARα production remains elusive. To examine the regulation of PPARα production, we examined the effect of 7 statins (atorvastatin, cerivastatin, fluvastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and(More)
Ezetimibe inhibits Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1), an apical membrane cholesterol transporter of enterocytes, thereby reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption. This treatment also increases extrahepatic reverse cholesterol transport via an undefined mechanism. To explore this, we employed a trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) assay, which directly(More)
We herein present a 60-year-old man with adrenocortical carcinoma who had gynecomastia. An endocrinological examination revealed increased levels of serum estradiol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and reduced levels of free testosterone. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an adrenal tumor with heterogeneous intensity. Iodine-131 adosterol(More)
BACKGROUND Liraglutide was first released in Japan as a long-acting once-daily glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist. The maximum dose in Japan is 0.9 mg/day, which is half of that used in the United States and the European Union (1.8 mg/day). The efficacy of this maximum allowable dose of liraglutide for Japanese patients and the profiles of those(More)