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Two-photon calcium imaging provides an optical readout of neuronal activity in populations of neurons with subcellular resolution. However, conventional two-photon imaging systems are limited in their field of view to ∼1 mm(2), precluding the visualization of multiple cortical areas simultaneously. Here, we demonstrate a two-photon microscope with an(More)
Neuronal dendrites are electrically excitable: they can generate regenerative events such as dendritic spikes in response to sufficiently strong synaptic input. Although such events have been observed in many neuronal types, it is not well understood how active dendrites contribute to the tuning of neuronal output in vivo. Here we show that dendritic spikes(More)
The cerebellar cortical circuit with its organized and repetitive structure provides an excellent model system for studying how brain circuits are formed during development. The emergence of the mature brain requires that appropriate synaptic connections are formed and refined, which in the rodent cerebellum occurs primarily during the first three postnatal(More)
UNLABELLED Apoptosis plays an essential role during brain development, yet the precise mechanism by which this pathway is regulated in the brain remains unknown. In particular, mammalian cells are known to express multiple anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. However, the cells of the developing brain could also exist in a primed state in which the loss of(More)
We present a two-photon microscope that images the full extent of murine cortex with an objective-limited spatial resolution across an 8 mm by 10 mm field. The lateral resolution is approximately 1 µm and the maximum scan speed is 5 mm/ms. The scan pathway employs large diameter compound lenses to minimize aberrations and performs near theoretical limits.(More)
Measurements were made of plasma membrane voltage noise in cells of a bone cell clone. The measurements were made under conditions intended to approximate in vivo conditions more closely than in previous electrical measurements on small mammalian cells. Mononucleate cells of normal size, imbedded in a collagen matrix, were used. The electrical state of the(More)
Five years experience by the authors in organizing a dental psychology clinic has impressed on them that many excessively fearful child patients have a history of untoward dental and medical experiences which might have been prevented. A background to an understanding of fear and anxiety in children is presented, and two cases are described to illustrate(More)
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