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Two-photon calcium imaging provides an optical readout of neuronal activity in populations of neurons with subcellular resolution. However, conventional two-photon imaging systems are limited in their field of view to ∼1 mm(2), precluding the visualization of multiple cortical areas simultaneously. Here, we demonstrate a two-photon microscope with an(More)
Neuronal dendrites are electrically excitable: they can generate regenerative events such as dendritic spikes in response to sufficiently strong synaptic input. Although such events have been observed in many neuronal types, it is not well understood how active dendrites contribute to the tuning of neuronal output in vivo. Here we show that dendritic spikes(More)
The cerebellar cortical circuit with its organized and repetitive structure provides an excellent model system for studying how brain circuits are formed during development. The emergence of the mature brain requires that appropriate synaptic connections are formed and refined, which in the rodent cerebellum occurs primarily during the first three postnatal(More)
Sensory experience orchestrates the development of cortical circuitry by adaptively modifying neurotransmission and synaptic connectivity. However, the mechanisms underlying these experience-dependent modifications remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that visual experience suppresses a presynaptic NMDA receptor (preNMDAR)-mediated form of timing-dependent(More)
UNLABELLED Apoptosis plays an essential role during brain development, yet the precise mechanism by which this pathway is regulated in the brain remains unknown. In particular, mammalian cells are known to express multiple anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. However, the cells of the developing brain could also exist in a primed state in which the loss of(More)
Five years experience by the authors in organizing a dental psychology clinic has impressed on them that many excessively fearful child patients have a history of untoward dental and medical experiences which might have been prevented. A background to an understanding of fear and anxiety in children is presented, and two cases are described to illustrate(More)
Multiple cortical areas contribute to visual processing in mice. However, the functional organization and development of higher visual areas are unclear. Here we used intrinsic signal optical imaging and two-photon calcium imaging to map visual responses in adult and developing mice. We found that visually driven activity was well correlated among higher(More)
n e w s a n d v i e w s a highly detailed study of light scattering through mouse skull and neural tissue. The model involved empirical data, including X-ray computed tomography scans to measure skull thickness, and predicted a marked increase in transcranial light penetration to deep neural tissues at a red wavelength compared with a green wavelength.(More)
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