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The in vivo rat brain microdialysis technique with HPLC/UV was used to determine the blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration of pralidoxime iodide (2-PAM), which is a component of the current nerve agent antidote therapy. After intravenous dosage of 2-PAM (10, 50, 100 mg/kg), 2-PAM appeared dose-dependently in the dialysate; the striatal extracellular/blood(More)
The signals that prompt the axons to send out processes in peripheral nerves after axotomy are not well understood. Here, we report that galectin-1 can play an important role in this initial stage. We developed an in vitro nerve regeneration model that allows us to monitor the initial axon and support cell outgrowth from the proximal nerve stump, which is(More)
Crystallographic studies have elucidated the binding mechanism of forskolin and P-site inhibitors to adenylyl cyclase. Accordingly, computer-assisted drug design has enabled us to identify isoform-selective regulators of adenylyl cyclase. After examining more than 200 newly synthesized derivatives of forskolin, we found that the modification at the(More)
Activation of the type-1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) signaling pathway in the cerebellum involves activation of phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) for the induction of cerebellar long term depression (LTD). The PLC and PKC isoforms that are involved in LTD remain unclear, however. One previous study found no change in LTD in(More)
Detection of biological weapons is a primary concern in force protection, treaty verification, and safeguarding civilian populations against domestic terrorism. One great concern is the detection of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop novel methods for rapid, simple, and precise detection of B.(More)
We clarified the roles of IL-1 beta in peripheral neural regeneration after axotomy in a three-dimensional collagen gel culture system ranging from a single neurone to a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explant with its associated nerve bundles. Application of 30 U/ml IL-1 beta to the culture systems clearly enhanced neural regeneration. This regeneration was(More)
The brain obtains energy by keeping the cerebral blood flow constant against unexpected changes in systemic blood pressure. Although this homeostatic mechanism is widely known as cerebrovascular autoregulation, it is not understood how widely and how robustly it works in the brain. Using a needle-like objective lens designed for deep-tissue imaging, we(More)
Various neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, stimulate adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP, which regulates neuronal functions. Genetic disruption of the type 5 adenylyl cyclase isoform led to a major loss of adenylyl cyclase activity in a striatum-specific manner with a small increase in the expression of a few other adenylyl cyclase isoforms. D1 dopaminergic(More)
BACKGROUND No one has previously examined the relation of serum total cholesterol, serum triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose to colorectal carcinoma in situ. METHODS A case-control study was performed with 129 cases of colorectal carcinoma in situ and 258 matched controls among examinees undergoing a health check-up in Tokyo from January 1991 to(More)
A case-control study was performed in order to examine the relation of cigarette smoking and alcohol use to colorectal carcinoma in situ and cancer, separately. Study subjects consisted of 129 colorectal carcinoma in situ cases, 66 colorectal cancer cases, and 390 controls recruited from health check-up examinees in Tokyo from January 1991 to March 1993.(More)