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Activation of the type-1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) signaling pathway in the cerebellum involves activation of phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) for the induction of cerebellar long term depression (LTD). The PLC and PKC isoforms that are involved in LTD remain unclear, however. One previous study found no change in LTD in(More)
The brain obtains energy by keeping the cerebral blood flow constant against unexpected changes in systemic blood pressure. Although this homeostatic mechanism is widely known as cerebrovascular autoregulation, it is not understood how widely and how robustly it works in the brain. Using a needle-like objective lens designed for deep-tissue imaging, we(More)
The in vivo rat brain microdialysis technique with HPLC/UV was used to determine the blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration of pralidoxime iodide (2-PAM), which is a component of the current nerve agent antidote therapy. After intravenous dosage of 2-PAM (10, 50, 100 mg/kg), 2-PAM appeared dose-dependently in the dialysate; the striatal extracellular/blood(More)
Various neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, stimulate adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP, which regulates neuronal functions. Genetic disruption of the type 5 adenylyl cyclase isoform led to a major loss of adenylyl cyclase activity in a striatum-specific manner with a small increase in the expression of a few other adenylyl cyclase isoforms. D1 dopaminergic(More)
Bioluminescence microscopy has revealed that gene expression in individual cells can respond differently to the same stimulus. To understand this phenomenon, it is important to sequentially observe the series of events from cellular signal transduction to gene expression regulated by specific transcription factors derived from signaling cascades in(More)
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