Ikuko Funatogawa

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OBJECTIVE Autism appears to have a strong genetic component. The product of the NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 1 alpha subcomplex 5 (NDUFA5) gene is included in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. METHOD We performed a case-control study of 235 patients with autism and 214 controls and examined three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within(More)
BACKGROUND The National Nutrition Survey, Japan (NNS-J) provides annual anthropometric information for a whole nation over 50 years. Based on this survey, the mean body mass index (BMI) of Japanese men and elderly women has increased in recent decades, but that of young women has decreased. We examined the effect of birth cohort on this phenomenon. (More)
Autism is a child-onset pervasive developmental disorder, with a significant role of genetic factors in its development. Genome-wide linkage studies have suggested a 7q region as a susceptibility locus for autism. We investigated several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Forkhead Box P2 (FOXP2) and Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase, Receptor-type, Zeta-1(More)
Autism (MIM 209850) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by disturbances in social interaction and communication, by repetitive body movements and restricted interests, and by atypical language development. Several twin and family studies have shown strong evidence for genetic factors in the etiology of autism. Glutamate is a major(More)
Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder of early childhood. Genetic factors play an important role in the aetiology of the disorder. In this study, we considered the NRCAM gene as a candidate gene of autism. This gene is expressed in the central nervous system and located in the 7q region, a susceptibility locus of autism. We conducted a case-control(More)
Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex genetic aetiology. The wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 2 (WNT2) gene has been considered as a candidate gene for autism. We conducted a case-control study and followed up with a transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) analysis to confirm replication of the significant results for(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare growth curves of body mass index from children to adolescents, and then to young adults, in Japanese girls and women in birth cohorts born from 1930 to 1999. DESIGN Retrospective repeated cross sectional annual nationwide surveys (national nutrition survey, Japan) carried out from 1948 to 2005. SETTING Japan. PARTICIPANTS 76,635(More)
When primary endpoints of randomized trials are continuous variables, the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with pre-treatment measurements as a covariate is often used to compare two treatment groups. In the ANCOVA, equal slopes (coefficients of pre-treatment measurements) and equal residual variances are commonly assumed. However, random allocation(More)
OBJECTIVE To show long-term trends of smoking initiation in Great Britain including unanalysed data and assess the impact of early smoking initiation on the lung cancer mortality in later ages focusing on birth cohorts. DESIGN Reanalysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted 13 times during 1965-1987. SETTING Great Britain. PARTICIPANTS Men(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine smoking trends in Japan in comparison with lung cancer mortality. METHODS Age-specific smoking prevalence among cohorts born between 1897 and 1985 were determined for the period 1949-2010. The percentages of the cohorts born between 1893 and 1979 who initiated smoking early (e.g. before the age of 20 years) were determined. The(More)