Ikuko Funatogawa

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Autism is a child-onset pervasive developmental disorder, with a significant role of genetic factors in its development. Genome-wide linkage studies have suggested a 7q region as a susceptibility locus for autism. We investigated several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Forkhead Box P2 (FOXP2) and Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase, Receptor-type, Zeta-1(More)
Autism (MIM 209850) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by disturbances in social interaction and communication, by repetitive body movements and restricted interests, and by atypical language development. Several twin and family studies have shown strong evidence for genetic factors in the etiology of autism. Glutamate is a major(More)
Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder of early childhood. Genetic factors play an important role in the aetiology of the disorder. In this study, we considered the NRCAM gene as a candidate gene of autism. This gene is expressed in the central nervous system and located in the 7q region, a susceptibility locus of autism. We conducted a case-control(More)
BACKGROUND The National Nutrition Survey, Japan (NNS-J) provides annual anthropometric information for a whole nation over 50 years. Based on this survey, the mean body mass index (BMI) of Japanese men and elderly women has increased in recent decades, but that of young women has decreased. We examined the effect of birth cohort on this phenomenon. (More)
OBJECTIVE To show long-term trends of smoking initiation in Great Britain including unanalysed data and assess the impact of early smoking initiation on the lung cancer mortality in later ages focusing on birth cohorts. DESIGN Reanalysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted 13 times during 1965-1987. SETTING Great Britain. PARTICIPANTS Men(More)
Autism (MIM 209850) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties with verbal and non-verbal communication, impairments in reciprocal social interactions, and displays of stereotypic behaviors, interests and activities. Twin and family studies have indicated a robust role of genetic factors in the development of autism. Neuronal Pentraxin(More)
This online first version has been peer-reviewed, accepted and edited, but not formatted and finalized with corrections from authors and proofreaders. Abstract Objective To determine smoking trends in Japan in comparison with lung cancer mortality. Methods Age-specific smoking prevalence rates among cohorts born between 1897 and 1985 were determined for the(More)
In clinical studies, dependent bivariate continuous responses may approach equilibrium over time. We propose an autoregressive linear mixed effects model for bivariate longitudinal data in which the current responses are regressed on the previous responses of both variables, fixed effects, and random effects. The equilibria are modeled using fixed and(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare growth curves of body mass index from children to adolescents, and then to young adults, in Japanese girls and women in birth cohorts born from 1930 to 1999. DESIGN Retrospective repeated cross sectional annual nationwide surveys (national nutrition survey, Japan) carried out from 1948 to 2005. SETTING Japan. PARTICIPANTS 76,635(More)
We are interested in longitudinal data of a continuous response that show profiles with an initial sharp change and approaching asymptotes for each patient, and many patients drop out with a reason related to the response. In this paper, we focus on a model that assumes a dropout process is missing at random (MAR). In this dropout process, we can obtain(More)