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Lysyl oxidase, a copper-dependent metalloenzyme, plays a central role in crosslinking of collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix. Notably, lung lysyl oxidase activity is markedly stimulated in rats exposed to cadmium vapors. To further understand the mechanism of cadmium toxicity, the mRNA expression, synthesis, post-translational processing, and(More)
The effects of As3+ (NaAsO2) on the microtubule and microfilament organization, cytoskeletal protein synthesis, cytoskeletal and cytosolic (soluble) protein sulfhydryls, and cellular glutathione (GSH) levels were examined in Swiss 3T3 mouse cells. Exposure of cells to 2.5 microM As3+ for 16 hr resulted in apparent cell retraction and loss of thick cables of(More)
To understand further the mechanisms of cadmium toxicity, cytoskeletal organization and homeostasis of cellular thiols were examined in cadmium-resistant cells isolated from Swiss mouse 3T3 cells by incubation in graded concentrations of CdCl2 (Cd2+) in the culture medium. Cd(2+)-resistant cells displayed profound alterations in their cytoskeletal(More)
The relationship between total glutathione (GSH) content and cell growth was examined in 3T3 fibroblasts. The intracellular GSH level of actively growing cultures gradually decreases as these cells become quiescent by either serum deprivation or high cell density. Upon mitogenic stimulation of sparse, quiescent (G0/G1) cultures with serum, there is a rapid(More)
Lysyl oxidase (LO), an enzyme secreted by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), initiates the covalent crosslinking of polypeptide chains within collagen and elastin. The present study reveals that purified LO strongly induces directional migration of VSMC in an in vitro assay system. LO-dependent chemotaxis, but not chemokinesis, was abolished by(More)
Lysyl oxidase (LO) plays a central role in the crosslinking of collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix. Here we demonstrate that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a polypeptide which regulates proliferation, differentiation, and migration of a variety of cell types, is a substrate of LO. The oxidation of lysine residues in bFGF by LO resulted(More)
As an essential metal for cell metabolism, Mg2+ is known to exert antagonism on Ni2+ genotoxic and other effects. This study examined the influence of Mg2+ on Ni(2+)-induced changes in microtubule (MT) assembly in vitro, cytoplasmic MT organization, cellular glutathione (GSH), and cytoskeletal and cytosolic protein sulfhydryls (PSH). As determined by a(More)
Lysyl oxidase (LO), a copper-dependent enzyme, plays a critical role in the formation and repair of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by catalyzing the crosslinking of elastin and collagen. To better understand mechanisms of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema, we examined changes in LO and its substrates, i.e., elastin and collagen type I, the major(More)
To understand the mechanisms of Cd2+ and Ni2+ cytotoxicity, we have studied the effects of these two metal ions on the organization of cytoskeletal elements, microtubules (MT) and microfilaments (MF), cytoskeletal protein sulfhydryls and cellular glutathione (GSH) in cultured 3T3 cells. At a metal ion dose that caused 95% inhibition of DNA synthesis, Cd2+(More)
Exposure of 3T3 cells to micromolar doses of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, a substrate for glutathione-S-transferase, resulted in a rapid depletion of total cellular glutathione accompanied by disassembly of microtubules as visualized by fluorescence microscopy. However, prolonged incubation resulted in cellular recovery from 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene(More)