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We isolated the human adipose-specific and most abundant gene transcript, apM1 (Maeda, K., et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 221, 286-289, 1996). The apM1 gene product was a kind of soluble matrix protein, which we named adiponectin. To quantitate the plasma adiponectin concentration, we have produced monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies for human(More)
The liver X receptors (LXRs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that are bound and activated by oxysterols. These receptors serve as sterol sensors to regulate the transcription of gene products that control intracellular cholesterol homeostasis through catabolism and transport. In this report, we describe a novel LXR target, the sterol(More)
Insulin resistance and its dreaded consequence, type 2 diabetes, are major causes of atherosclerosis. Adiponectin is an adipose-specific plasma protein that possesses anti-atherogenic properties, such as the suppression of adhesion molecule expression in vascular endothelial cells and cytokine production from macrophages. Plasma adiponectin concentrations(More)
The 5' end of the mRNA-encoding sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) exists in two forms, designated 1a and 1c. The divergence results from the use of two transcription start sites that produce two separate 5' exons, each of which is spliced to a common exon 2. Here we show that the ratio of SREBP-1c to 1a transcripts varies markedly among(More)
Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) enhance transcription of genes encoding enzymes of cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis and uptake. In the current experiments, we observed a decline in the mRNA encoding one SREBP isoform, SREBP-1c, in the livers of rats that were rendered diabetic by treatment with streptozotocin. There was no change(More)
Hepatic steatosis is common in non-insulin-dependent diabetes and can be associated with fibrosis and cirrhosis in a subset of individuals. Increased rates of fatty acid synthesis have been reported in livers from rodent models of diabetes and may contribute to the development of steatosis. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are a family of(More)
In liver, the synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids increases in response to cholesterol deprivation and insulin elevation, respectively. This regulatory mechanism underlies the adaptation to cholesterol synthesis inhibitors (statins) and high calorie diets (insulin). In nonhepatic cells, lipid synthesis is controlled by sterol regulatory element-binding(More)
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a paucity of adipose (fat) tissue which is evident at birth and is accompanied by a severe resistance to insulin, leading to hyperinsulinaemia, hyperglycaemia and enlarged fatty liver. We have developed a mouse model that mimics these features of CGL: the(More)
In mice with too little fat (lipodystrophy) or too much fat (ob/ob), leptin deficiency leads to hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. In both disorders, the liver overproduces glucose as a result of resistance to the normal action of insulin in repressing mRNAs for gluconeogenic enzymes. Here we show that chronic hyperinsulinemia(More)