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Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are now widely used in off-line handwriting recognition and, in particular, in Arabic handwritten word recognition. In contrast to the conventional approach, based on Gaussian mixture HMMs, we have recently proposed to directly fed columns of raw, binary pixels into Bernoulli mixture HMMs. In this work, column bit vectors are(More)
Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are now widely used for off-line handwriting recognition in many languages. As in speech recognition, they are usually built from shared, embedded HMMs at symbol level, where state-conditional probability density functions in each HMM are modeled with Gaussian mixtures. In contrast to speech recognition, however, it is unclear(More)
The NIST Open Handwriting Recognition and Translation Evaluation 2013 (NIST OpenHaRT’13) is a performance evaluation assessing technologies that transcribe and translate text in document images. This evaluation is focused on recognizing Arabic text images and translating them into English. A Handwriting Recognition and Translation system typically consists(More)
Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are now widely used for off-line text recognition in many languages and, in particular, Arabic. In previous work, we proposed to directly use columns of raw, binary image pixels, which are directly fed into embedded Bernoulli (mixture) HMMs, that is, embedded HMMs in which the emission probabilities are modeled with Bernoulli(More)
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