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A unique pattern of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks has emerged along the Central Asia Flyway, where infection of wild birds has been reported with steady frequency since 2005. We assessed the potential for two hosts of HPAI H5N1, the bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) and ruddy shelduck (Tadorna tadorna), to act as agents for virus(More)
BACKGROUND In Spring 2009, a novel reassortant strain of H1N1 influenza A emerged as a lineage distinct from seasonal H1N1. On June 11, the World Heath Organization declared a pandemic - the first since 1968. There are currently two main branches of H1N1 circulating in humans, a seasonal branch and a pandemic branch. The primary treatment method for(More)
HIV infections are initiated by a limited number of variants that diverge into a diverse quasispecies swarm. During in utero mother-to-child transmission (IU MTCT), transmitted viral variants must pass through multiple unique environments, and our previously published data suggest a nonstochastic model of transmission. As an alternative to a stochastic(More)
Emerging infectious diseases are critical issues of public health and the economic and social stability of nations. As demonstrated by the international response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and influenza A, rapid genomic sequencing is a crucial tool to understand diseases that occur at the interface of human and animal populations.(More)
Approximately 20% of all HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) occurs in utero (IU). In a chronic HIV infection, HIV-1 exists as a complex swarm of genetic variants, and following IU MTCT, viral genomic diversity is restricted through a mechanism that remains to be described. The 5' U3R region of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) contains multiple(More)
BACKGROUND Associations between genotype and phenotype provide insight into the evolution of pathogenesis, drug resistance, and the spread of pathogens between hosts. However, common ancestry can lead to apparent associations between biologically unrelated features. The novel method Cladograms with Path to Event (ClaPTE) detects associations between(More)
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