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A unique pattern of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks has emerged along the Central Asia Flyway, where infection of wild birds has been reported with steady frequency since 2005. We assessed the potential for two hosts of HPAI H5N1, the bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) and ruddy shelduck (Tadorna tadorna), to act as agents for virus(More)
BACKGROUND In Spring 2009, a novel reassortant strain of H1N1 influenza A emerged as a lineage distinct from seasonal H1N1. On June 11, the World Heath Organization declared a pandemic - the first since 1968. There are currently two main branches of H1N1 circulating in humans, a seasonal branch and a pandemic branch. The primary treatment method for(More)
BACKGROUND Associations between genotype and phenotype provide insight into the evolution of pathogenesis, drug resistance, and the spread of pathogens between hosts. However, common ancestry can lead to apparent associations between biologically unrelated features. The novel method Cladograms with Path to Event (ClaPTE) detects associations between(More)
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