Igor V. Makunin

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There are 481 segments longer than 200 base pairs (bp) that are absolutely conserved (100% identity with no insertions or deletions) between orthologous regions of the human, rat, and mouse genomes. Nearly all of these segments are also conserved in the chicken and dog genomes, with an average of 95 and 99% identity, respectively. Many are also(More)
The term non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is commonly employed for RNA that does not encode a protein, but this does not mean that such RNAs do not contain information nor have function. Although it has been generally assumed that most genetic information is transacted by proteins, recent evidence suggests that the majority of the genomes of mammals and other complex(More)
In many late-replicating euchromatic regions of salivary gland polytene chromosomes, DNA is underrepresented. A mutation in the SuUR gene suppresses underreplication and leads to normal levels of DNA polytenization in these regions. We identified the SuUR gene and determined its structure. In the SuUR mutant stock a 6-kb insertion was found in the fourth(More)
Salivary gland polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster have a reproducible set of intercalary heterochromatin (IH) sites, characterized by late DNA replication, underreplicated DNA, breaks and frequent ectopic contacts. The SuUR mutation has been shown to suppress underreplication, and wild-type SuUR protein is found at late-replicating IH sites and(More)
In Drosophila polytene chromosomes, most late-replicating regions remain underreplicated. A loss-of-function mutant of the suppressor of underreplication [Su(UR)] gene suppresses underreplication (UR), whereas extra copies of this gene enhance the level and number of regions showing UR. By combining DNA microarray analysis with manipulation of the number of(More)
Mammalian genomes contain millions of highly conserved noncoding sequences, many of which are regulatory. The most extreme examples are the 481 ultraconserved elements (UCEs) that are identical over at least 200 bp in human, mouse, and rat and show 96% identity with chicken, which diverged approximately 310 MYA. If the substitution rate in UCEs remained(More)
The SuUR (suppressor of underreplication) gene controls late replication and underreplication of DNA in Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosomes: its mutation suppresses DNA underreplication whereas additional doses of the normal allele strongly enhances underreplication. The SuUR protein is localized in late replicating and underreplicating regions.(More)
Despite the presence of over 3 million transposons separated on average by approximately 500 bp, the human and mouse genomes each contain almost 1000 transposon-free regions (TFRs) over 10 kb in length. The majority of human TFRs correlate with orthologous TFRs in the mouse, despite the fact that most transposons are lineage specific. Many human TFRs also(More)
Mammalian cells harbor numerous small non-protein-coding RNAs, including small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and small double-stranded RNAs, which regulate gene expression at many levels including chromatin architecture, RNA editing, RNA stability, translation, and quite possibly transcription and splicing.(More)
Mutations of the dor gene of Drosophila melanogaster cause defects in different stages of development. Heterozygotes for lethal or viable dor alleles and the rearrangement T(1;2)dor var7 , which causes position effect variegation of dor, exhibit traits such as rough eyes, reduction of bristles on the thorax and scutellum and wavy wings. The dor gene was(More)