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Monkeypox virus (MPV) belongs to the orthopoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae, is endemic in parts of Africa, and causes a human disease that resembles smallpox. The 196,858-bp MPV genome was analyzed with regard to structural features and open reading frames. Each end of the genome contains an identical but oppositely oriented 6379-bp terminal inverted(More)
Monkeypox virus (MPV) causes a human disease which resembles smallpox but with a lower person-to-person transmission rate. To determine the genetic relationship between the orthopoxviruses causing these two diseases, we sequenced the 197-kb genome of MPV isolated from a patient during a large human monkeypox outbreak in Zaire in 1996. The nucleotide(More)
Previous restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis divided variola virus (VARV) strains into two subtypes, one of which included West African and South American isolates. This allowed a dating to be introduced for the first time in estimation of the VARV evolution rate. The results were used to analyze the molecular evolution of the total family(More)
Kemerovo virus (KEMV), a member of the Reoviridae family, Orbivirus genus, is transmitted by Ixodes ticks and can cause aseptic meningitis and meningoencephalitis. Recently, this virus was observed in certain provinces of European part of Russia, Ural, and Western and Eastern Siberia. However, the occurrence and genetic diversity of KEMV in Western Siberia(More)
A method for species-specific detection of orthopoxviruses pathogenic for humans and animals is described. The method is based on hybridization of a fluorescently labeled amplified DNA specimen with the oligonucleotide DNA probes immobilized on a microchip (MAGIChip). The probes identify species-specific sites within the crmB gene encoding the viral(More)
Comparative RFLP analysis was for the first time performed for 21 variola virus (VARV) strains of the Russian collection with 20 amplicons covering the total VARV genome. The amplicons were synthesized in the long polymerase chain reaction. A database useful as a reference for identifying VARV strains was generated. VARV strains isolated in different(More)
The growing body of knowledge concerning the molecular biology of viruses and virus-cell interactions provides possibilities to use viruses as a tool in an effort to treat malignant tumors. As a rule, tumor cells are highly sensitive to viruses, which can be used in cancer therapy. At the same time, the application of viral oncolysis in cancer treatment(More)
Modern data on selection and design of poxviruses, which are able to specifically lyse tumor cells of various origins and induce antitumor immunity and apoptosis of malignant cells, are presented in this review. Work is being carried out in several areas, including attenuation of viruses, insertion of immunomodulatory protein genes, and insertion of(More)
Unlike in vertebrates and RNA viruses, the molecular clock has not been estimated so far for DNA viruses. The extended conserved central region (102 kb) of the orthopoxvirus genome and the DNA polymerase gene (3 kb) were analyzed in viruses representing several genera of the family Poxviridae. Analysis was based on the known dating of the variola virus(More)