Igor V. Babkin

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Monkeypox virus (MPV) belongs to the orthopoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae, is endemic in parts of Africa, and causes a human disease that resembles smallpox. The 196,858-bp MPV genome was analyzed with regard to structural features and open reading frames. Each end of the genome contains an identical but oppositely oriented 6379-bp terminal inverted(More)
Monkeypox virus (MPV) causes a human disease which resembles smallpox but with a lower person-to-person transmission rate. To determine the genetic relationship between the orthopoxviruses causing these two diseases, we sequenced the 197-kb genome of MPV isolated from a patient during a large human monkeypox outbreak in Zaire in 1996. The nucleotide(More)
A screening assay for real-time LightCycler (Roche Applied Science, Mannheim, Germany) PCR identification of smallpox virus DNA was developed and compiled in a kit system under good manufacturing practice conditions with standardized reagents. In search of a sequence region unique to smallpox virus, the nucleotide sequence of the 14-kDa fusion protein gene(More)
Previous restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis divided variola virus (VARV) strains into two subtypes, one of which included West African and South American isolates. This allowed a dating to be introduced for the first time in estimation of the VARV evolution rate. The results were used to analyze the molecular evolution of the total family(More)
The chicken anemia virus gene that encodes apoptin, a selective killer of cancer cells, was synthe-sized and inserted into the vaccinia virus (strain L-IVP) genome. The insertion replaces a major part of the viral C11R gene that encodes viral growth factor, which is important for virulence. The recombinant virus VVdGF-ApoS24/2 was obtained by transient(More)
The data on the structure of conserved genes of the Old and New World orthopoxviruses and unclassified Yoka poxvirus were used for a Bayesian dating of their independent evolution. This reconstruction estimates the time when an orthopoxvirus ancestor was transferred to the North American continent as approximately 50 thousand years ago (TYA) and allows for(More)
Variola virus (VAR) belonging to the family Poxviridae causes smallpox, one of the most hazardous human diseases. It is known that VAR strains of different geographic origin may cause forms of disease differing in severity and progress. The forms of variola with mild clinical manifestations are traditionally termed variola minor; and those with severe(More)
Unlike in vertebrates and RNA viruses, the molecular clock has not been estimated so far for DNA viruses. The extended conserved central region (102 kb) of the orthopoxvirus genome and the DNA polymerase gene (3 kb) were analyzed in viruses representing several genera of the family Poxviridae. Analysis was based on the known dating of the variola virus(More)
Integrative plasmids pΔC, pΔD, and pΔG were designed to contain a selective marker beyond the region of homology to virus DNA and to allow construction of recombinant cowpox viruses (CPV) that lack C18L, D11L, or G3L coding for kelch-like proteins. CPV mutants lacking one (C18L, D11L, or G3L), two (D11L/G3L or C18L/D11L), or three (D11L/G3L/C18L, that is,(More)
Two segments of the variable terminal regions of the variola virus (VARV) genome were sequenced in 22 strains from the Russian collection, including about 13.5 kb of the left segment and about 10.5 kb of the right segment. The total length of the sequences was over 540 kb. Phylogenetic analysis of the new and published data determined the relationships(More)