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Means for high-density multiparametric physiological mapping and stimulation are critically important in both basic and clinical cardiology. Current conformal electronic systems are essentially 2D sheets, which cannot cover the full epicardial surface or maintain reliable contact for chronic use without sutures or adhesives. Here we create 3D elastic(More)
Unlike other excitation-contraction uncouplers, blebbistatin has few electrophysiological side effects and has gained increasing acceptance as an excitation-contraction uncoupler in optical mapping experiments. However, the possible role of blebbistatin in ventricular arrhythmia has hitherto been unknown. Furthermore, experiments with blebbistatin and(More)
BACKGROUND There is an effort to build an anatomically and biophysically detailed virtual heart, and, although there are models for the atria and ventricles, there is no model for the sinoatrial node (SAN). For the SAN to show pacemaking and drive atrial muscle, theoretically, there should be a gradient in electrical coupling from the center to the(More)
analysis of cardiac optical mapping data obtained with potentiometric dyes. mapping has become an increasingly important tool to study cardiac electrophysiology in the past 20 years. Multiple methods are used to process and analyze cardiac optical mapping data, and no consensus currently exists regarding the optimum methods. The specific methods chosen to(More)
Optical mapping of arrhythmias and defibrillation provides important insights; however, a limitation of the technique is signal distortion due to photon scattering. The goal of this experimental/simulation study is to investigate the role of three-dimensional photon scattering in optical signal distortion during ventricular tachycardia (VT) and(More)
The copy number of membrane proteins at the cell surface is tightly regulated. Many ion channels and receptors present retrieval motifs to COPI vesicle coats and are retained in the early secretory pathway. In some cases, the interaction with COPI is prevented by binding to 14-3-3 proteins. However, the functional significance of this antagonism between(More)
The sinoatrial node (SAN) and the atrioventricular node (AVN) are specialized tissues in the heart: the SAN is specialized for pacemaking (it is the pacemaker of the heart), whereas the AVN is specialized for slow conduction of the action potential (to introduce a delay between atrial and ventricular activation during the cardiac cycle). These functions(More)
Differences in mRNA expression levels have been observed in failing versus non-failing human hearts for several membrane channel proteins and accessory subunits. These differences may play a causal role in electrophysiological changes observed in human heart failure and atrial fibrillation, such as action potential (AP) prolongation, increased AP(More)
The virtual electrode polarization (VEP) effect is believed to play a key role in electrical stimulation of heart muscle. However, under certain conditions, including clinically, its existence and importance remain unknown. We investigated the influence of acute tissue damage produced by continuous pacing with strong current (40-mA, 4-ms biphasic pulses(More)