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Herpesviruses are characterized by their ability to maintain life-long latent infections in their animal hosts. However, the mechanisms that allow establishment and maintenance of the latent state remain poorly understood. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes latency in neurons of sensory ganglia, where the only abundant viral gene product is a(More)
Certain viruses use microRNAs (miRNAs) to regulate the expression of their own genes, host genes, or both. Previous studies have identified a limited number of miRNAs expressed by herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2), some of which are conserved between these two viruses. To more comprehensively analyze the miRNAs expressed by HSV-1 or HSV-2 during(More)
Many viruses encode proteins that inhibit the induction of programmed cell death at the mitochondrial checkpoint. Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) encodes the m38.5 protein, which localizes to mitochondria and protects human HeLa cells and fibroblasts from apoptosis triggered by proteasome inhibitors but not from Fas-induced apoptosis. However, the ability of(More)
Several herpes simplex virus 1 microRNAs are encoded within or near the latency associated transcript (LAT) locus, and are expressed abundantly during latency. Some of these microRNAs can repress the expression of important viral proteins and are hypothesized to play important roles in establishing and/or maintaining latent infections. We found that in(More)
To facilitate studies of herpes simplex virus 1 latency, cell culture models of quiescent or latent infection have been developed. Using deep sequencing, we analyzed the expression of viral microRNAs (miRNAs) in two models employing human fibroblasts and one using rat neurons. In all cases, the expression patterns differed from that in productively infected(More)
Cytomegaloviruses, representatives of the Betaherpesvirinae, cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts. They infect various cells and tissues in their natural host but are highly species specific. For instance, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) does not replicate in mouse cells, and human cells are not permissive for murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV)(More)
Several different families of DNA viruses encode proteins that inactivate the cellular retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb), which normally functions to bind E2F transcription factors and restrict expression of genes necessary for cellular processes including DNA replication. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL97, a protein kinase functionally(More)
Infection with herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) brings numerous changes in cellular gene expression. Levels of most host mRNAs are reduced, limiting synthesis of host proteins, especially those involved in antiviral defenses. The impact of HSV-1 on host microRNAs (miRNAs), an extensive network of short non-coding RNAs that regulate mRNA stability/translation,(More)
Mammalian alphaherpesviruses are major causes of human and veterinary disease. During productive infection, these viruses exhibit complex and robust patterns of gene expression. These viruses also form latent infections in neurons of sensory ganglia in which productive cycle gene expression is highly repressed. Both modes of infection provide advantageous(More)