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Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare but often fatal brain disease caused by reactivation of the polyomavirus JC. Knowledge of the characteristics of PML has substantially expanded since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy during the HIV epidemic and the development of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the clinical value of JC virus (JCV) detection in various anatomic compartments for the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). METHODS CSF, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), plasma, and urine samples were evaluated from HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. JCV DNA was detected by PCR and was(More)
BACKGROUND Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a deadly demyelinating disease of the brain, caused by reactivation of the polyomavirus JC (JCV). PML has classically been described in individuals with profound cellular immunosuppression such as patients with AIDS, haematological malignancies, organ transplant recipients or those treated with(More)
Seizures are not expected in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a condition considered to be restricted to the white matter. Review of medical records of 89 patients with possible or proven PML showed an 18% prevalence of seizures. Seizures usually responded well to treatment and did not affect survival. The presence of PML lesions(More)
OBJECTIVE To establish criteria for the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). METHODS We reviewed available literature to identify various diagnostic criteria employed. Several search strategies employing the terms "progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy" with or without "JC virus" were performed with PubMed, SCOPUS, and(More)
The polyomavirus JC (JCV) is the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and of JCV granule cell neuronopathy. We present a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient who experienced development of multiple cortical lesions, aphasia, and progressive cognitive decline after chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. Brain biopsy(More)
OBJECTIVE Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a severe complication of natalizumab therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), which is often accompanied by an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after removal of the drug. We describe a patient with MS who presented with simultaneous PML-IRIS 2 months after stopping(More)
HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) is a common complication of AIDS. No effective treatment is available. The authors investigated the long-term effect (48 weeks) of the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) in an open-label study of 200 subjects with HIV-associated DSP. Similar to their previously reported double-blind study, the authors(More)
We characterized inflammatory infiltrates in archival brain biopsy and autopsy samples from 26 HIV(+) and 20 HIV(-) patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The predominant inflammatory cells were CD8(+) T lymphocytes. We defined CD8(+) T cell distribution with regard to JCV-infected glial cells, PML lesions and the extent of(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) lesions by contrast-enhanced MRI and evaluate their metabolism using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H- MRS) in the setting of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). METHODS A total of 42 patients with PML underwent a clinical evaluation as well as brain MRI(More)