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Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare but often fatal brain disease caused by reactivation of the polyomavirus JC. Knowledge of the characteristics of PML has substantially expanded since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy during the HIV epidemic and the development of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome(More)
OBJECTIVE To establish criteria for the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). METHODS We reviewed available literature to identify various diagnostic criteria employed. Several search strategies employing the terms "progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy" with or without "JC virus" were performed with PubMed, SCOPUS, and(More)
To determine the variability of BK virus (BKV) in vivo, the sequences of nine full-length molecular clones from the striated muscle and heart DNA of a patient with BKV-associated capillary leak syndrome (BKVCAP), as well as three clones each from the urine of one human immunodeficiency virus type 2-positive (BKVHI) and one healthy control subject (BKVHC),(More)
BACKGROUND We sought to determine the prevalence of JC virus (JCV) in bone marrow samples from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative patients and to determine whether bone marrow is a site of latency and neurotropic transformation of JCV, the agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). METHODS We collected bone marrow(More)
Nothing is more disappointing for patients than when a promising new treatment hits a roadblock because of unexpected side effects. This is what happened when natalizumab (Tysabri) was associated with a few cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease patients, caused by the reactivation of the(More)
Seizures are not expected in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a condition considered to be restricted to the white matter. Review of medical records of 89 patients with possible or proven PML showed an 18% prevalence of seizures. Seizures usually responded well to treatment and did not affect survival. The presence of PML lesions(More)
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is caused by the JC polyomavirus (JCV) and is one of the most feared complications of HIV-1 infection. Unlike other opportunistic infections, this disease can present when CD4 counts are higher than those associated with AIDS and when patients are receiving combined antiretroviral therapy, either shortly after(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the clinical value of JC virus (JCV) detection in various anatomic compartments for the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). METHODS CSF, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), plasma, and urine samples were evaluated from HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. JCV DNA was detected by PCR and was(More)
In this issue of the Journal, there are reports describing in detail three patients in whom progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) developed during treatment with natalizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against a 4 inte-grins. 1-3 These patients were among 3000 who had participated in clinical trials of natalizumab for the treatment of(More)
The pX region of the human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) contains at least four open reading frames (orfI-orfIV). orf III and orf IV encode the regulatory HTLV-I proteins Rex and Tax, which together modulate viral expression, and the p21rex protein of unknown function. By using the reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction(More)