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Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare but often fatal brain disease caused by reactivation of the polyomavirus JC. Knowledge of the characteristics of PML has substantially expanded since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy during the HIV epidemic and the development of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome(More)
OBJECTIVE To establish criteria for the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). METHODS We reviewed available literature to identify various diagnostic criteria employed. Several search strategies employing the terms "progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy" with or without "JC virus" were performed with PubMed, SCOPUS, and(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the clinical value of JC virus (JCV) detection in various anatomic compartments for the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). METHODS CSF, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), plasma, and urine samples were evaluated from HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. JCV DNA was detected by PCR and was(More)
To determine the variability of BK virus (BKV) in vivo, the sequences of nine full-length molecular clones from the striated muscle and heart DNA of a patient with BKV-associated capillary leak syndrome (BKVCAP), as well as three clones each from the urine of one human immunodeficiency virus type 2-positive (BKVHI) and one healthy control subject (BKVHC),(More)
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a severe demyelinating disease of the brain caused by JC virus (JCV). To assess the role of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells against JCV in the clinical outcome of PML and PML in the setting of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), we tested gamma interferon (IFN-γ) response by enzyme-linked(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) lesions by contrast-enhanced MRI and evaluate their metabolism using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H- MRS) in the setting of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). METHODS A total of 42 patients with PML underwent a clinical evaluation as well as brain MRI(More)
Seizures are not expected in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a condition considered to be restricted to the white matter. Review of medical records of 89 patients with possible or proven PML showed an 18% prevalence of seizures. Seizures usually responded well to treatment and did not affect survival. The presence of PML lesions(More)
BACKGROUND We sought to determine the prevalence of JC virus (JCV) in bone marrow samples from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative patients and to determine whether bone marrow is a site of latency and neurotropic transformation of JCV, the agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). METHODS We collected bone marrow(More)
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is caused by the JC polyomavirus (JCV) and is one of the most feared complications of HIV-1 infection. Unlike other opportunistic infections, this disease can present when CD4 counts are higher than those associated with AIDS and when patients are receiving combined antiretroviral therapy, either shortly after(More)
HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) is a common complication of AIDS. No effective treatment is available. The authors investigated the long-term effect (48 weeks) of the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) in an open-label study of 200 subjects with HIV-associated DSP. Similar to their previously reported double-blind study, the authors(More)