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Sensitivity analyses for the preferential flow model MACRO were carried out using one-at-a-time and Monte Carlo sampling approaches. Four different scenarios were generated by simulating leaching to depth of two hypothetical pesticides in a sandy loam and a more structured clay loam soil. Sensitivity of the model was assessed using the predictions for(More)
A climatic classification for Europe suitable for pesticide fate modelling was constructed using a 3-stage process involving the identification of key climatic variables, the extraction of the dominant modes of spatial variability in those variables and the use of k-means clustering to identify regions with similar climates. The procedure identified 16(More)
The analysis of the coherent data on nonextractable (bound) residues (NER) from the literature and EU pesticide registration dossiers allows the identification of general trends, in spite of the large variability and heterogeneity of data. About 50% of the pesticides reviewed exhibit a low proportion of NER (less than 30% of the initial amount) while only(More)
There is worldwide interest in the application of probabilistic approaches to pesticide fate models to account for uncertainty in exposure assessments. The first steps in conducting a probabilistic analysis of any system are: (i) to identify where the uncertainties come from; and (ii) to pinpoint those uncertainties that are likely to affect most of the(More)
The uncalibrated predictive ability of four preferential flow models (CRACK-NP, MACRO/MACRO_DB, PLM, SWAT) has been evaluated against point rates of drainflow and associated concentrations of isoproturon from a highly structured and heterogeneous clay soil in the south of England. Data were available for four plots for a number of storm events in each of(More)
Papers and published reports investigating the presence of pesticides in rainfall in Europe were reviewed. Approximately half of the compounds that were analysed for were detected. For those detected, most concentrations were below about 100 ng/l, but larger concentrations, up to a few thousand nanograms per litre, were detected occasionally at most(More)
BACKGROUND Key climatic factors influencing the transport of pesticides to drains and to depth were identified. Climatic characteristics such as the timing of rainfall in relation to pesticide application may be more critical than average annual temperature and rainfall. The fate of three pesticides was simulated in nine contrasting soil types for two(More)
Sensitivity analyses using a one-at-a-time approach were carried out for leaching models which have been widely used for pesticide registration in Europe (PELMO, PRZM, PESTLA and MACRO). Four scenarios were considered for simulation of the leaching of two theoretical pesticides in a sandy loam and a clay loam soil, each with a broad distribution across(More)
Monte Carlo techniques are increasingly used in pesticide exposure modeling to evaluate the uncertainty in predictions arising from uncertainty in input parameters and to estimate the confidence that should be assigned to the modeling results. The approach typically involves running a deterministic model repeatedly for a large number of input values sampled(More)
SWATCATCH is a distributed model combined with databases within a GIS as the POPPIE system to predict pesticide concentrations in rivers at the catchment outlet. The model was evaluated against a dataset of pesticide concentrations in rivers of England and Wales. More than 2000 individual analyses in each of the years 1995 and 1997 covered approximately 150(More)