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A dynamic positive feedback mechanism, known as 'facilitation', augments L-type calcium-ion currents (ICa) in response to increased intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. The Ca2+-binding protein calmodulin (CaM) has been implicated in facilitation, but the single-channel signature and the signalling events underlying Ca2+/CaM-dependent facilitation are(More)
L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs) are major entry points for Ca(2+) in many cells. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is associated with cardiac LTCC complexes and increases channel open probability (P(O)) to dynamically increase Ca(2+) current (I(Ca)) and augment cellular Ca(2+) signaling by a process called facilitation. However, the(More)
BACKGROUND Calmodulin kinase (CaMK) II is linked to arrhythmia mechanisms in cellular models where repolarization is prolonged. CaMKII upregulation and prolonged repolarization are general features of cardiomyopathy, but the role of CaMKII in arrhythmias in cardiomyopathy is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS We studied a mouse model of cardiac hypertrophy(More)
1. Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK) and a calmodulin (CaM)-binding 'IQ' domain (IQ) are both implicated in Ca2+-dependent regulation of L-type Ca2+ current (I(Ca)). We used an IQ-mimetic peptide (IQmp), under conditions in which CaMK activity was controlled, to test the relationship between these CaM-activated signalling elements in the(More)
L-type Ca2+ channels are macromolecular protein complexes in neurons and myocytes that open in response to cell membrane depolarization to supply Ca2+ for regulating gene transcription and vesicle secretion and triggering cell contraction. L-type Ca2+ channels include a pore-forming alpha and an auxiliary beta subunit, and alpha subunit openings are(More)
The exp-2 gene in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans influences the shape and duration of the action potential of pharyngeal muscle cells. Several loss-of-function mutations in exp-2 lead to broadening of the action potential and to a concomitant slowing of the pumping action of the pharynx. In contrast, a gain-of-function mutation leads to narrow action(More)
A calmodulin (CaM) binding 'IQ' domain on the L-type Ca(2+) channel (LTCC) C terminus and calmodulin kinase II (CaMK) both signal increases in LTCC opening probability (P(o)) by shifting LTCCs into a gating mode (mode 2) with long openings through a process called facilitation. However, the mechanism whereby CaMK and the IQ domain are targeted to LTCCs is(More)
L-type Ca2+ channel C terminus calmodulin (CaM)-binding domains are molecular determinants for Ca(2+)-CaM-dependent increases in L-type Ca2+ current (ICa), and a CaM-binding IQ domain mimetic peptide (IQmp) increases L-type Ca2+ channel current by promoting a gating mode with prolonged openings (mode 2), suggesting the intriguing possibility that(More)
To investigate the mechanisms that increase ionic currents when Ca(2+) channels' alpha(1) subunits are co-expressed with the beta-subunits, we compared channel activity of Ca(V)1.2 (alpha(1C)) co-expressed with beta(1a) and beta(2a) in Xenopus oocytes. Normalized by charge movement, ionic currents were near threefold larger with beta(2a) than with beta(1a).(More)
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