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Methamphetamine (METH), a potent stimulant with strong euphoric properties, has a high abuse liability and long-lasting neurotoxic effects. Recent studies in animal models have indicated that METH can induce impairment of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), thus suggesting that some of the neurotoxic effects resulting from METH abuse could be the outcome of(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in controlling the passage of molecules from the blood to the extracellular fluid environment of the brain. The multidrug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is highly expressed in the luminal membrane of brain capillary endothelial cells, thus forming a functional barrier to lipid-soluble drugs, notably,(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents the entrance of circulating molecules and immune cells into the central nervous system. The barrier is formed by specialized brain endothelial cells that are interconnected by tight junctions (TJ). A defective function of the BBB has been described for a variety of neuroinflammatory diseases, indicating that proper(More)
It has been proposed that the positioning of mobile cells within a tissue is determined by their overall profile of chemokine receptors. This study examines the profiles of chemokine receptors expressed on resting and activated adult human microglial cells, astrocytes and a microglial cell line, CHME3. Microglia express highest levels of CXCR1, CXCR3 and(More)
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with a variety of clinical manifestations, including tropical spastic paraparesis or HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). Viral detection in the central nervous system (CNS) of TSP/HAM patients demonstrates the ability of HTLV-1 to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). To investigate viral entry(More)
The human brain endothelial capillary cell line hCMEC/D3 has been developed recently as a model for the human blood-brain barrier. In this study a further characterization of this model was performed with special emphasis on permeability properties and active drug transport. Para- or transcellular permeabilities (P(e)) of inulin (0.74 x 10(-3) cm/min),(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in controlling the passage of molecules from the blood to the extracellular fluid environment of the brain. An immortalised rat brain endothelial cell line (GPNT) was used to investigate the mechanisms underlying dexamethasone-induced decrease in paracellular permeability. Following treatment with 1(More)
Evidence suggests that endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays an essential role in brain inflammation. However, whether ET-1 contributes directly to blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown remains to be elucidated. Using an in vitro BBB model consisting of co-cultures of human primary astrocytes and brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs), we first investigated the(More)
Homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) microenvironment is maintained by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which regulates the transport of molecules from blood into brain and back. Many disorders change the functionality and integrity of the BBB. Glucocorticoids are being used sucessfully in the treatment of some disorders while their effects on(More)
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is a hallmark of neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and stroke. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neurovascular dysfunction during BBB breakdown remain elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as key regulators of pathogenic responses, although their role in central nervous(More)