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M-Pesa, a mobile-phone based electronic payments system, has been adopted by 8.5 million Kenyans in the relatively short span of 21⁄2 years. Surveys of users show it is a highly valued service, and Safaricom continues to expand the range of applications it can be used for. This paper explores how Safaricom, the mobile operator that commercializes M-PESA,(More)
The penetration of bank accounts among the • population. The weak business case for deploying a • sufficiently dense network of acceptance terminals (automated teller machines [ATMs] or point-of-sale [POS] devices) in environments with low economic activity or population density. The cost of communications underpinning the • real-time authorization of(More)
The tasks of entrapping/escorting and patrolling around an autonomous target are presented making use of the multi-robot cluster space control approach. The cluster space control technique promotes simplified specification and monitoring of the motion of mobile multi-robot systems of limited size. Previous work has established the conceptual foundation of(More)
The cluster space control technique promotes simplified specification and monitoring of the motion of mobile multi-robot systems of limited size. Previous work has established the conceptual foundation of this approach and has experimentally verified and validated its use for two diverse 2- robot systems and with varying implementations ranging from(More)
developing countries have any form of financial savings with formal banking institutions: 10 percent in Kenya, 20 percent in Macedonia, 25 percent in Mexico, 32 percent in Bangladesh. Yet access to financial services—whether in the form of savings, payments, credit, or insurance—is a fundamental tool for managing a family’s well-being and productive(More)
Multi-robot systems have the potential to improve application-specific performance by offering redundancy, increased coverage and throughput, flexible reconfiguration, and/or spatially diverse functionality (Kitts & Egerstedt, 2008). For mobile systems, a driving consideration is the method by which the motions of the individual vehicles are coordinated.(More)
The formation control technique called cluster space control promotes simplified specification and monitoring of the motion of mobile multirobot systems of limited size. Previous work has established the conceptual foundation of this approach and has experimentally verified and validated its use for various systems implementing kinematic controllers. In(More)
The cluster space control technique promotes simplified specification and monitoring of the motion of mobile multi-robot systems of limited size. Previous work has established the conceptual foundation of this approach and has experimentally verified and validated its use for 2-robot, 3-robot and 4-robot systems, with varying implementations ranging from(More)