Ignacio J Villar-Garcia

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We report the enthalpies of vaporisation (measured using temperature programmed desorption by mass spectrometry) of twelve ionic liquids (ILs), covering four imidazolium, [C(m)C(n)Im]+, five pyrrolidinium, [C(n)C(m)Pyrr]+, two pyridinium, [C(n)Py]+, and a dication, [C3(C1Im)2]2+ based IL. These cations were paired with a range of anions: [BF4]-, [FeCl4]-,(More)
Simple ionic liquids have long been held to be designer solvents, based upon the ability to independently vary their cations and anions. The formation of mixtures of ionic liquids increases this synthetic flexibility. We review the available literature of these ionic liquid mixtures to identify how their properties change and the possibility for their(More)
Ultra-high-vacuum (UHV)-based techniques can offer the scientist a tremendous amount of information about samples of interest. However, until recently the range of samples that could be routinely investigated using unmodified instrumentation was limited to solid samples and frozen solutions. In this paper we report the investigation of low-vapor-pressure,(More)
The presence of water can have a significant influence upon both the physical and dielectric properties of ionic liquids and consequently their ability to interact with microwaves. Herein we show that complex permittivity initially decreases as low concentrations of water are added to the system, the continued addition of water gives rise to an inversion in(More)
The structures of mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs) featuring a common 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C4C1im](+)) cation but different anions have been investigated both experimentally and computationally. (1)H and (13)C NMR of the ILs and their mixtures has been performed both on the undiluted liquids and those diluted by CD2Cl2. These experiments have been(More)
Ultra high vacuum-spectroelectrochemistry was used to investigate the electrochemically generated Cu species in the ionic liquid (N-methylacetate)-4-picolinium bis(trisfluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [MAP][Tf(2)N]. The diffusion of Cu(+) across the surface of the ionic liquid was monitored in situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A numerical procedure(More)
A range of chloroindate(iii) ionic liquid systems was prepared by mixing of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with indium(iii) chloride in various ratios, expressed as the mol fraction of indium(iii) chloride, chi(InCl(3)). For chi(InCl(3))</= 0.50, the products were liquids, whereas for chi(InCl(3)) > 0.50, the products were biphasic (suspensions of a(More)
High-pressure photoelectron spectroscopy is a rapidly developing technique with applications in a wide range of fields ranging from fundamental surface science and catalysis to energy materials, environmental science, and biology. At present the majority of the high-pressure photoelectron spectrometers are situated at synchrotron end stations, but recently(More)
Eight common imidazolium based ionic liquids have been successfully evaporated in ultra-high vacuum, their vapours analysed by line of sight mass spectrometry and their heats (enthalpy) of vapourisation determined. They were found to evaporate as ion pairs, with heats of vapourisation which depend primarily on the coulombic interactions within the liquid(More)
Ionic liquid-vacuum outer atomic surfaces can be created that are remarkably different from the bulk composition. In this communication we demonstrate, using low-energy ion scattering (LEIS), that for ionic liquid mixtures the outer atomic surface shows significantly more atoms from anions with weaker cation-anion interactions (and vice versa).