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More than 300 catalase sequences are now available, divided among monofunctional catalases (> 225), bifunctional catalase-peroxidases (> 50) and manganese-containing catalases (> 25). When combined with the recent appearance of crystal structures from at least two representatives from each of these groups (nine from the monofunctional catalases), valuable(More)
N-Acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK) catalyses the second step in the route of arginine biosynthesis. In many organisms this enzyme is inhibited by the final product of the route, arginine, and thus plays a central regulatory role. In addition, in photosynthetic organisms NAGK is the target of the nitrogen-signalling protein PII. The 3-D structure of(More)
The C2 domain acts as a membrane-targeting module in a diverse group of proteins including classical protein kinase Cs (PKCs), where it plays an essential role in activation via calcium-dependent interactions with phosphatidylserine. The three-dimensional structures of the Ca(2+)-bound forms of the PKCalpha-C2 domain both in the absence and presence of 1,(More)
The leader protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus, as well as cleaving itself from the nascent viral polyprotein, disables host cell protein synthesis by specific proteolysis of a cellular protein: the eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G). The crystal structure of the leader protease presented here comprises a globular catalytic domain reminiscent of(More)
N-Acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK), a member of the amino acid kinase family, catalyzes the second and frequently controlling step of arginine synthesis. The Escherichia coli NAGK crystal structure to 1.5 A resolution reveals a 258-residue subunit homodimer nucleated by a central 16-stranded molecular open beta sheet sandwiched between alpha helices. In(More)
Human rhinoviruses are classified into a major and a minor group based on their binding to ICAM-1 or to members of the LDL-receptor family, respectively. They can also be divided into groups A and B, according to their sensitivity towards a panel of antiviral compounds. The structure of human rhinovirus 2 (HRV2), which uses the LDL receptor for cell(More)
Glycogen and starch synthases are retaining glycosyltransferases that catalyze the transfer of glucosyl residues to the non-reducing end of a growing alpha-1,4-glucan chain, a central process of the carbon/energy metabolism present in almost all living organisms. The crystal structure of the glycogen synthase from Pyrococcus abyssi, the smallest known(More)
The structures of the two leader protease (Lpro) variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus known to date were solved using crystals in which molecules were organized as molecular fibers. Such crystals diffract to a resolution of only approximately 3 A. This singular, pseudo-polymeric organization is present in a new Lpro crystal form showing a cubic packing.(More)
Beef liver and human erythrocyte catalases (EC 1.11.1.6) bind NADP tenaciously [Kirkman, H. N. & Gaetani, G. F. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 4343-4348]. The position of NADP on beef liver catalase corresponds to the carboxyl-terminal polypeptide hinge in Penicillium vitale fungal catalase, which connects the common catalase structure to the(More)
The refined structure of beef liver catalase (I. Fita, A. M. Silva, M. R. N. Murthy & M. G. Rossmann, unpublished results) is here examined with regard to possible catalytic mechanisms. The distal side of the deeply buried heme pocket is connected with the surface of the molecule by one (or possibly two) channel. The electron density representing the heme(More)