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Equilibrium ‡ow in a physical network with a large number of users (e.g., transportation, communication and computer networks) need not be unique if the costs of the network elements are not the same for all users. Such di¤erences among users may arise if they are not equally a¤ected by congestion or have di¤erent intrinsic preferences. Whether or not, for(More)
Congestion externalities may result in non-optimal equilibria. For these to occur, it suffices that facilities differ in their fixed utilities or costs. As this paper shows, the only case in which equilibria are always socially optimal, regardless of the fixed components, in that in which the costs increase logarithmically with the size of the set of users.(More)
We consider a special case of weighted congestion games with player-specific latency functions where each player uses for each particular resource a fixed (non-decreasing) delay function together with a player-specific constant. For each particular resource, the resource-specific delay function and the player-specific constant (for that resource) are(More)
This paper presents a model of group formation based on the assumption that individuals prefer to associate with people similar to them. It is shown that, in general, if the number of groups that can be formed is bounded, then a stable partition of the society into groups may not exist. (A partition is defined as stable if none of the individuals would(More)