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OBJECTIVE To review epidemiological surveillance approaches used during Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Africa in the past fifteen years. Overall, 26 hemorrhagic epidemic outbreaks have been registered in 12 countries; 18 caused by the Ebola virus and eight by the Marburg virus. About 2551 cases have been reported, among which 268 were(More)
BACKGROUND Communicable diseases are the leading causes of illness, deaths, and disability in sub-Saharan Africa. To address these threats, countries within the World Health Organization (WHO) African region adopted a regional strategy called Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR). This strategy calls for streamlining resources, tools, and(More)
BACKGROUND African countries have intensified in-service training on Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) for district and facility health personnel to strengthen their disease surveillance systems. Eight countries evaluated their experiences and lessons in the implementation of IDSR. METHODOLOGY We conducted a secondary analysis of the(More)
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is now a well-established technique for the detection, under appropriate conditions, of single molecules (SM) adsorbed on metallic nanostructures. However, because of the large variations of the SERS enhancement factor on the surface, only molecules located at the positions of highest enhancement, so-called(More)
In 2001 a significant proportion of cases of meningococcal meningitis toward the end of a serogroup A epidemic in Niger and Burkina Faso was found to be caused by serogroup W135 meningococci. The World Health Organization put in place in several African countries an extended surveillance scheme in preparation for a possible epidemic situation. In January(More)
The wireless sensor network is an emerging technology that may greatly facilitate human life by providing ubiquitous sensing, computing, monitoring and communication capability, through which people can more closely interact with the environment wherever he/she goes. To be context-aware, one of the central issues in sensor networks is location tracking,(More)
In this article, we investigate the Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) efficiency of methylene blue (MB) molecules deposited on gold nanostripes which, due to their fabrication by electron beam lithography and thermal evaporation, present various degrees of crystallinity and nanoscale surface roughness (NSR). By comparing gold nanostructures with(More)