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BACKGROUND Estradiol affects neuronal plasticity, mood, and cognition. We examined the effects of the estrous cycle, acute and chronic estradiol treatments on BDNF mRNA expression in the hippocampus and cortex of female rats. The roles of 5-HT2A receptors and of stress on the BDNF mRNA regulation were also explored. METHODS BDNF mRNA levels were measured(More)
Interictal brain energy metabolism and glutamate-glutamine cycling are impaired in epilepsy and may contribute to seizure generation. We used the zero-flow microdialysis method to measure the extracellular levels of glutamate, glutamine, and the major energy substrates glucose and lactate in the epileptogenic and the nonepileptogenic cortex and hippocampus(More)
BACKGROUND Impaired cortical plasticity may be part of the core pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Long-term potentiation is a form of neuroplasticity that has been recently demonstrated in humans by showing that repetitive visual stimulation produces lasting enhancement of visual evoked potentials (VEP). Using this paradigm, we examined whether visual(More)
OBJECTIVE Many clinical syndromes in neuropsychiatry suggest focal brain activation. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been proposed as a method for selectively altering neural activity. METHOD Studies assessing effects of "slow" rTMS, administered up to once per second, in normal people and in those with pathological conditions are(More)
PURPOSE Because of the large and continuous energetic requirements of brain function, neurometabolic dysfunction is a key pathophysiologic aspect of the epileptic brain. Additionally, neurometabolic dysfunction has many self-propagating features that are typical of epileptogenic processes, that is, where each occurrence makes the likelihood of further(More)
PURPOSE Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is associated with smaller hippocampal volume and with elevated extracellular (EC) glutamate levels. We investigated the relationship between the hippocampal volume and glutamate in refractory TLE patients. METHODS We used quantitative MRI volumetrics to measure the hippocampal volume and zero-flow microdialysis to(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy and safety of adjunctive ziprasidone in subjects with acute mania treated with lithium or divalproex, with an inadequate response to the mood stabilizer. METHOD The study enrolled subjects aged 18-65 years who had a primary DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, with the most recent episode manic or mixed, with or without(More)
OBJECTIVE Aberrant glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission contribute to seizure generation and the epileptic state. However, whether levels of these neurochemicals are abnormal in epileptic patients is unknown. Here, we report on interictal levels of glutamate, glutamine, and GABA in epilepsy patients at seizure onset and nonepileptic(More)
How do animals distinguish between sensations coming from external sources and those resulting from their own actions? A corollary discharge system has evolved that involves the transmission of a copy of motor commands to sensory cortex, where the expected sensation is generated. Through this mechanism, sensations are tagged as coming from self, and(More)
As the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in human brain, GABA is an important modulator of hyperexcitability in epilepsy patients. Given the high energetic cost of neurotransmission and synaptic activity, GABA concentrations may be hypothesized to correlate with metabolic function. We studied human epilepsy patients undergoing intracranial EEG monitoring(More)