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OBJECTIVE Many clinical syndromes in neuropsychiatry suggest focal brain activation. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been proposed as a method for selectively altering neural activity. METHOD Studies assessing effects of "slow" rTMS, administered up to once per second, in normal people and in those with pathological conditions are(More)
Interictal brain energy metabolism and glutamate-glutamine cycling are impaired in epilepsy and may contribute to seizure generation. We used the zero-flow microdialysis method to measure the extracellular levels of glutamate, glutamine, and the major energy substrates glucose and lactate in the epileptogenic and the nonepileptogenic cortex and hippocampus(More)
BACKGROUND Estradiol affects neuronal plasticity, mood, and cognition. We examined the effects of the estrous cycle, acute and chronic estradiol treatments on BDNF mRNA expression in the hippocampus and cortex of female rats. The roles of 5-HT2A receptors and of stress on the BDNF mRNA regulation were also explored. METHODS BDNF mRNA levels were measured(More)
Despite our understanding of hormonal influences on central nervous system (CNS) function, there is still much to learn about the pathogenesis of menstrual cycle-linked disorders. A growing literature suggests that the influence of sex steroids on neurological and psychiatric disorders is in part mediated by an aberrant CNS response to neuroactive steroids.(More)
BACKGROUND Impaired cortical plasticity may be part of the core pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Long-term potentiation is a form of neuroplasticity that has been recently demonstrated in humans by showing that repetitive visual stimulation produces lasting enhancement of visual evoked potentials (VEP). Using this paradigm, we examined whether visual(More)
A growing literature suggests that hormonal fluctuations occurring across the menstrual cycle, during and after pregnancy, and during the menopausal transition are associated with onset of affective disorders or exacerbation of existing disorders. This influence of the neuroendocrine system on psychiatric disorders is thought to be mediated by an(More)
PURPOSE Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is associated with smaller hippocampal volume and with elevated extracellular (EC) glutamate levels. We investigated the relationship between the hippocampal volume and glutamate in refractory TLE patients. METHODS We used quantitative MRI volumetrics to measure the hippocampal volume and zero-flow microdialysis to(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term efficacy and safety of ziprasidone in children and adolescents with bipolar I disorder. METHODS Subjects 10-17 years of age with a manic or mixed episode associated with bipolar I disorder participated in a 4 week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial(More)
PURPOSE Because of the large and continuous energetic requirements of brain function, neurometabolic dysfunction is a key pathophysiologic aspect of the epileptic brain. Additionally, neurometabolic dysfunction has many self-propagating features that are typical of epileptogenic processes, that is, where each occurrence makes the likelihood of further(More)
OBJECTIVE Aberrant glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission contribute to seizure generation and the epileptic state. However, whether levels of these neurochemicals are abnormal in epileptic patients is unknown. Here, we report on interictal levels of glutamate, glutamine, and GABA in epilepsy patients at seizure onset and nonepileptic(More)