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UDP-glucuronosyltrasferases (UGTs) are detoxifying enzymes, which convert endogenous substrates, dietary constituents and potential carcinogens to inactive hydrophilic glucuronides. Although the liver is considered the most important organ for glucuronidation, UGTs are also expressed in extrahepatic tissues. Since UGTs may be important to protect cells from(More)
Recent epidemiological studies suggest that the risk for urological malignancies may be related to the exposure to infectious agents. Human Papillomaviruses type 16 and 18 (HPV 16, HPV 18), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) have been suggested previously as cofactors in the pathogenesis of some(More)
Despite the large number of studies performed in solid tumors, few attempts at molecular detection of urothelial cells in blood have been made. Specifically, only uroplakin II (UP-II) and cytokeratin 20 (CK-20) have been suggested as tumor markers in the blood of bladder cancer patients. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA expression was found in(More)
Apoptotic cell death represents an important mechanism for the precise regulation of cell numbers, and a defence mechanism against tumoral cell. bcl-2 and bax genes are known to be involved in the control of apoptotic pathways; in particular, the ratio between bcl-2 and bax represents a cell rheostat that is able to predict a cell's response toward life or(More)
BACKGROUND It has been suggested that progression of superficial bladder cancer may be regulated at the molecular level by a typical pattern of expression of genes involved in apoptosis. Recently LIVIN, belonging to the inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) family, has been found to be expressed in most solid tumors, where its expression is suggested to have(More)
Expression of genes such as cytokeratin 19 (CK19), cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been investigated at mRNA level in peripheral blood of carcinoma patients to detect the presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC). We performed this study because recent literature emphasizes that the importance of CK19, 20 and EGFR mRNAs(More)
Recent data suggest that new treatment options for superficial bladder cancer are necessary, owing to the high recurrence rate after conventional treatment, especially in T1G3 and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin-refractory patients. Phase I and II studies have demonstrated that gemcitabine may represent a candidate for intravesical therapy in superficial bladder(More)
Tenascin C has been recently suggested as a tumor marker, however, its levels in serum has been evaluated only in patients with head and neck cancer and melanoma. In this study, we investigated Tenascin C expression in blood samples from colorectal and bladder cancer patients, compared to that of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a known circulating(More)
Natural history of bladder cancer is characterized by high risk of disease progression even for patients with a clinical diagnosis of superficial disease; in these tumors, the occurrence of local relapse is known to be dependent on the angiogenesis rate. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), has been described to be elevated in urine and serum of patients(More)