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Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs) have conventionally been regarded as benign and stable tumors and considered curable with surgery without adjunctive therapy. Recently, recurrent DNETs with or without malignant transformation have been described. The authors report 2 unusual cases of DNET: 1) an enlarging lesion that developed an enhancing(More)
OBJECT Assessment of hypoxic conditions in brain tumors is important for predicting tumor aggressiveness and treatment response. A new hypoxia imaging agent, 1-(2-[(18)F]fluoro-1-[hydroxymethyl]ethoxy)methyl-2-nitroimidazole (FRP-170), with higher image contrast and faster clearance than preexisting hypoxia tracers for PET, was used to visualize hypoxic(More)
Identification of stem cell-like brain tumor cells (brain tumor stem-like cells; BTSC) has gained substantial attention by scientists and physicians. However, the mechanism of tumor initiation and proliferation is still poorly understood. CD44 is a cell surface protein linked to tumorigenesis in various cancers. In particular, one of its variant isoforms,(More)
Pilocytic astrocytoma sometimes transforms to a malignant type, and previous radiation therapy is considered to be a key factor. We report a case of pilocytic astrocytoma with histological malignant features without previous radiation therapy. A 21-year-old man presented a sudden onset of severe headache. Neuroimaging had detected a cystic mass in the(More)
OBJECT Intraoperative diagnosis is important in determining the strategies during surgery for glioma. Because the mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) genes have diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive values, the authors assessed the feasibility and significance of a simplified method for the intraoperative detection of IDH1 and(More)
BACKGROUND The prognosis of glioblastoma (GBM) remains poor; therefore, effective therapeutic strategies need to be developed. CD40 is a costimulatory molecule whose agonistic antibody has been shown to activate antitumor effects. Recently, CD40 has been extensively targeted for immunotherapeutic purposes. METHODS Expressions of CD40/CD40L mRNAs were(More)
BACKGROUND Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) plays pivotal roles in cytoprotection. We aimed at clarifying the contribution of the NRF2 pathway to malignant glioma pathology. METHODS NRF2 target gene expression and its association with prognosis were examined in 95 anaplastic gliomas with or without isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1/2 gene(More)
BACKGROUND Glioblastoma carries a poor prognosis primarily because of its high rate of recurrence. The ability to predict the recurrence pattern and timing would be highly useful for determining effective treatment strategies. We examined the correlation between prognostic factors and the pattern of recurrence in patients with primary glioblastoma. In(More)
BACKGROUND Diagnosis of WHO grade III anaplastic gliomas does not always correspond to its clinical outcome because of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene status. Anaplastic gliomas without IDH mutation result in a poor prognosis, similar to grade IV glioblastomas. However, the malignant features of anaplastic gliomas without IDH mutation are not well(More)
Changes in histological and genetic characteristics were investigated in 18 paired primary and recurrent oligodendroglial tumors, using sequencing analysis for isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 gene mutation, Ki-67 and p53 immunohistochemistry, and fluorescent in situ hybridization for loss of heterozygosity of chromosomes 1p and 19q (1p/19q(More)