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Pancreatic glucokinase (GK) is considered an important element of the glucose-sensing unit in pancreatic beta-cells. It is possible that the brain uses similar glucose-sensing units, and we employed GK immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy to examine the anatomical distribution of GK-like immunoreactivities in the rat brain. We found strong GK-like(More)
UNLABELLED Aims/Introduction:  Excessive intake of sucrose can cause severe health issues, such as diabetes mellitus. In animal studies, consumption of a high-sucrose diet (SUC) has been shown to cause obesity, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. However, several in vivo experiments have been carried out using diets with much higher sucrose contents(More)
Mutant mouse models are indispensable tools for clarifying the functions of genes and for elucidating the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of human diseases. Currently, several large-scale mutagenesis projects that employ the chemical mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) are underway worldwide. One specific aim of our ENU mutagenesis project is to generate(More)
Populations of Paramecium bursaria cells display a circadian rhythm of photoaccumulation. Both Chlorella-containing cells and Chlorella-free cells exhibit this rhythm. Several other species of Paramecium do not express rhythmic photoaccumulation when tested under the same conditions. In P. bursaria, photoaccumulation rhythms persist in continuous conditions(More)
Cell populations of Paramecium bursaria show mating reactivity in the light period, but not in the dark period, when exposed to a light-dark cycle (LD 12:12). After they are transferred to constant-light (LL) conditions (1,000 lux), they continue to show a circadian rhythm of mating reactivity. The rhythm gradually dampens in LL so that mating reactivity in(More)
Aminoguanidine inhibits the formation of advanced glycation end-products, and has been extensively examined in animals. However, administration of aminoguanidine decreases the hepatic content of pyridoxal phosphate. In order to avoid this problem, we developed an aminoguanidine pyridoxal Schiff base adduct and examined its efficacy in vitro as well as in a(More)
Glucokinase (GK) is known to be the critical glucose sensor of pancreatic B-cells. However, the localization and functional role of GK in the brain remains to be elucidated. In this study, we measured both the activity and mRNA level of GK in the hypothalamic nuclei and the cortex of rats injected intraperitoneally with streptozotocin or vehicle. GK(More)
A series of maturity onset diabetes of the young, type 2 (MODY2) mouse models generated by a large-scale ENU mutagenesis program. ABSTRACT Mutant mouse models are indispensable tools for clarifying the functions of genes and for elucidating the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of human diseases. Currently, several large-scale mutagenesis projects that(More)
Cells of an unusual Paramecium bursaria stock (Sj2) expressed rhythmic mating reactivity in a light/dark cycle (LD) and under continuous illumination (LL). When placed in continuous darkness (DD), did not show rhythmicity but rather demonstrated a continuous high mating reactivity. However, mating reactivity was reduced following exposure to a 6-h light(More)
In some neural models of circadian rhythmicity, membrane potential and transmembrane flux of potassium and calcium ions appear to play important roles in the entrainment and central mechanisms of the biological clock. We wondered whether these cellular variables might be generally involved in circadian clocks, even non-neural clocks. Therefore, we tested(More)