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Pancreatic glucokinase (GK) is considered an important element of the glucose-sensing unit in pancreatic beta-cells. It is possible that the brain uses similar glucose-sensing units, and we employed GK immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy to examine the anatomical distribution of GK-like immunoreactivities in the rat brain. We found strong GK-like(More)
We examined sugar-induced translocation of glucokinase in cultured hepatocytes from Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty and Goto-Kakizaki rats, animal models of type 2 diabetes, and compared this with that in Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka and Wistar rats, respectively, as control strains. When hepatocytes from the four strains were incubated with 5 mM glucose,(More)
UNLABELLED Aims/Introduction:  Excessive intake of sucrose can cause severe health issues, such as diabetes mellitus. In animal studies, consumption of a high-sucrose diet (SUC) has been shown to cause obesity, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. However, several in vivo experiments have been carried out using diets with much higher sucrose contents(More)
Thirty flavones, four isoflavones and thirteen coumarins were tested as inhibitors of lens aldose reductase, which is believed to participate in the initiation of cataract formation in diabetes. Many were found to be potent inhibitors, and the two most potent ones were axillarin (5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-3,6-dimethoxyflavone) and(More)
Glucokinase (Gck) functions as a glucose sensor for insulin secretion, and in mice fed standard chow, haploinsufficiency of beta cell-specific Gck (Gck(+/-)) causes impaired insulin secretion to glucose, although the animals have a normal beta cell mass. When fed a high-fat (HF) diet, wild-type mice showed marked beta cell hyperplasia, whereas Gck(+/-) mice(More)
Aminoguanidine (AG) is considered to be a promising compound for the treatment of diabetic complications. We examined the in vitro and in vivo formation of Schiff bases of AG with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxal (PL). AG reacted in vitro far more rapidly with PLP to form a Schiff base (PLP-AG) than with PL to form another Schiff base (PL-AG).(More)
Lipid peroxidation due to oxidative stress is accelerated under hyperglycemic conditions such as diabetes mellitus. The effect of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and other lipid peroxidation products on the ability of isolated rat pancreatic islets to secrete insulin was examined in this study. HNE concentration- and time-dependently deteriorated glucose-induced(More)
Fetal pancreatic islets show a deficiency in insulin secretion in response to glucose, but the underlying mechanism is disputed. By isolating pancreatic islets from 21-day pregnant rats and culturing them with 2.8 or 11.1 mM glucose for 7 days, we attempted to clarify the involvement of low glucokinase activity in the poor glucose response in islets(More)
We examined the ability of a pyridoxal-aminoguanidine adduct with both antiglycation and antioxidant activities in vitro to protect against neuropathy and cataract in streptozotocin-diabetic rats and compared the result with that of aminoguanidine. In vivo antiglycation and antioxidant activities were also compared between the adduct and aminoguanidine.(More)