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At early stages of the mammalian visual cortex, neurons with similar stimulus selectivities are vertically arrayed through the thickness of the cortical sheet and clustered in patches or bands across the surface. This organization, referred to as a 'column', has been found with respect to one-dimensional stimulus parameters such as orientation of stimulus(More)
1. Object vision is largely invariant to changes of retinal images of objects in size and position. To reveal neuronal mechanisms of this invariance, we recorded activities from single cells in the anterior part of the inferotemporal cortex (anterior IT), determined the critical features for the activation of individual cells, and examined the effects of(More)
It has been empirically established that the cerebral cortical areas defined by Brodmann one hundred years ago solely on the basis of cellular organization are closely correlated to their function, such as sensation, association, and motion. Cytoarchitectonically distinct cortical areas have different densities and types of neurons. Thus, signaling patterns(More)
We investigated the organization of horizontal connections at two distinct hierarchical levels in the ventral visual cortical pathway of the monkey, the inferior temporal (TE) and primary visual (V1) cortices. After injections of anterograde tracers into layers 2 and 3, clusters of terminals ('patches') of labeled horizontal collaterals in TE appeared at(More)
Intrinsic connections in the inferior temporal cortex were analyzed by making extracellular injections of biocytin in Japanese macaques. Analysis was focused mainly on the dorsal part of area TE, in which a functional columnar organization has been shown. Interlaminar connections were analyzed in coronal section after laminar-specific microinjections, and(More)
Spinogenesis and synaptic pruning during development are widely believed to subserve connectional specificity in the mature CNS via Hebbian-type reinforcement. Refinement of neuronal circuit through this "use it or lose it" principle is considered critical for brain development. Here we demonstrate that the magnitude of spinogenesis and pruning in the basal(More)
Visual area V4 is a midtier cortical area in the ventral visual pathway. It is crucial for visual object recognition and has been a focus of many studies on visual attention. However, there is no unifying view of V4's role in visual processing. Neither is there an understanding of how its role in feature processing interfaces with its role in visual(More)
Neurons in area TE of the monkey inferior temporal cortex respond selectively to images of particular objects or their characteristic visual features. The mechanism of generation of the stimulus selectivity, however, is largely unknown. This study addresses the role of inhibitory TE neurons in this process by examining their visual response properties and(More)
The firing rates of cortical neurons change in time; yet, some aspects of their in vivo firing characteristics remain unchanged and are specific to individual neurons. A recent study has shown that neurons in the monkey medial motor areas can be grouped into 2 firing types, "likely random" and "quasi-regular," according to a measure of local variation of(More)
Here we review recent findings related to postnatal spinogenesis, dendritic and axon growth, pruning and electrophysiology of neocortical pyramidal cells in the developing primate brain. Pyramidal cells in sensory, association and executive cortex grow dendrites, spines and axons at different rates, and vary in the degree of pruning. Of particular note is(More)