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Müller cells are active players in normal retinal function and in virtually all forms of retinal injury and disease. Reactive Müller cells protect the tissue from further damage and preserve tissue function by the release of antioxidants and neurotrophic factors, and may contribute to retinal regeneration by the generation of neural progenitor/stem cells.(More)
The cellular mechanisms underlying glial cell swelling, a central cause of edema formation in the brain and retina, are not yet known. Here, we show that glial cells in the postischemic rat retina, but not in control retina, swell upon hypotonic stress. Swelling of control cells could be evoked when their K(+) channels were blocked. After transient(More)
The development of edema in the diabetic retina may be caused by vascular leakage and glial cell swelling. To determine whether diabetic retinopathy alters the swelling characteristics of retinal glial cells and changes the properties of the glial membrane K+ conductance, isolated retinas and glial cells of rats were investigated at 4 and 6 months of(More)
Previous RT-PCR experiments revealed that the neural retina of the rat contains gene transcripts of numerous aquaporins (AQPs), including AQP6 (Tenckhoff et al., Neuroreport 16 (2005) 53-56). In the present study, we investigated the localization of AQP6 immunoreactivity in slices of the rat neural retina, and determined whether blue light injury of the(More)
A major function of glial cells is the control of osmotic and ionic homeostasis, mediated by K+ and water movements predominantly through inwardly rectifying K+ (Kir) and aquaporin water channels. It has been suggested that K+ currents through Kir channels are implicated in the regulation of glial cell volume. Here, we investigated whether the developmental(More)
PURPOSE/AIM To determine the transcriptional regulation of retinal aquaporins (AQPs) in rat models of transient and permanent retinal ischemia, and to prove the effects of chemical hypoxia, oxidative stress, glucose, and osmotic alterations on the expression of AQP9 in cultured human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS Transient(More)
Ischemia-reperfusion of the rat retina causes gliosis of Müller cells that is associated with a decrease of their K+ conductance. By using quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining of retinal slices, we investigated the effect of transient ischemia-reperfusion on retinal expression of two inward-rectifying K+ (Kir) channels, Kir4.1 and Kir2.1. In(More)
In addition to photoreceptors and neurons, glial cells (in particular Müller cells) contribute to the removal and metabolization of neurotransmitters in the neural retina. This review summarizes the present knowledge regarding the role of retinal glial cells in the uptake of glutamate, N-acetylaspartylglutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glycine, and(More)
BACKGROUND Under normal conditions, Müller cells support neuronal activity and the integrity of the blood-retinal barrier, whereas gliotic alterations of Müller cells under pathological conditions may contribute to retinal degeneration and edema formation. A major function of Müller cells is the fluid absorption from the retinal tissue, which is mediated by(More)
The anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid, triamcinolone acetonide, is used clinically for the rapid resolution of diabetic macular edema. Osmotic swelling of glial cells may contribute to the development of retinal edema. Triamcinolone inhibits the swelling of retinal glial cells of diabetic rats. Here, we determined whether the effect of triamcinolone is(More)