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Measures that quantify the impact of heterogeneity in univariate meta-analysis, including the very popular I(2) statistic, are now well established. Multivariate meta-analysis, where studies provide multiple outcomes that are pooled in a single analysis, is also becoming more commonly used. The question of how to quantify heterogeneity in the multivariate(More)
BACKGROUND The five-country European Psychiatric Services: Inputs Linked to Outcome Domains and Needs (EPSILON) Study aimed to develop standardised and reliable outcome instruments for people with schizophrenia. This paper reports reliability findings for the Camberwell Assessment of Need--European Version (CAN-EU). METHOD The CAN-EU was administered in(More)
BACKGROUND The relationship between population trends in delaying childbirth and rising rates of primary cesarean delivery is unclear. The aims of the present study were (1) to characterize the association between maternal age and the outcome of labor, (2) to determine the proportion of the increase in primary cesarean rates that could be attributed to(More)
OBJECTIVE A premorbid IQ deficit supports a developmental dimension to schizophrenia and its cognitive aspects that are crucial to functional outcome. Better characterisation of the association between premorbid IQ and the disorder may provide further insight into its origin and etiology. We aimed to quantify premorbid cognitive function in schizophrenia(More)
The multivariate random effects model is a generalization of the standard univariate model. Multivariate meta-analysis is becoming more commonly used and the techniques and related computer software, although continually under development, are now in place. In order to raise awareness of the multivariate methods, and discuss their advantages and(More)
Network meta-analysis (multiple treatments meta-analysis, mixed treatment comparisons) attempts to make the best use of a set of studies comparing more than two treatments. However, it is important to assess whether a body of evidence is consistent or inconsistent. Previous work on models for network meta-analysis that allow for heterogeneity between(More)
BACKGROUND Crisis resolution teams (CRTs) are being introduced throughout England, but their evidence base is limited. AIMS To compare outcomes of crises before and after introduction of a CRT. METHOD A new methodology was developed for identification and operational definition of crises. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare cohorts(More)
Missing covariate data commonly occur in epidemiological and clinical research, and are often dealt with using multiple imputation. Imputation of partially observed covariates is complicated if the substantive model is non-linear (e.g. Cox proportional hazards model), or contains non-linear (e.g. squared) or interaction terms, and standard software(More)
Multiple imputation is a popular way to handle missing data. Automated procedures are widely available in standard software. However, such automated procedures may hide many assumptions and possible difficulties from the view of the data analyst. Imputation procedures such as monotone imputation and imputation by chained equations often involve the fitting(More)