Learn More
The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which subjects modulate their elbow joint mechanical properties during ongoing arm movement. Small pseudo-random force disturbances were applied to the wrist with an airjet actuator while subjects executed large (1 rad) elbow joint movements. Using a lumped parameter model of the muscle, tendon and(More)
The left foot of five human subjects was rotated in a fixed stochastic pattern about a constant ankle angle and the forces opposing these perturbations were measured. The dynamic stiffness transfer functions relating ankle angular position to ankle torque were calculated. Stiffness gain was flat at low frequencies, had a resonant valley at intermediate(More)
The vestibular system has often been studied by perturbing the position of the head. This study was conducted to identify the dynamic properties of the head-neck system in response to horizontal plane perturbations. A quasilinear approach was used to quantify the dynamics of the head-neck system at different levels of static torque. An operating point was(More)
The dynamics of joint mechanics are a fundamental characteristic of the motor system. They determine the displacements evoked by perturbing forces during postural control and the forces that must be generated to perform a voluntary movement. This article reviews experimental studies of these dynamics, with an emphasis on the behavior of single joints in(More)
The left foot of five normal human subjects was rotated in a fixed stochastic pattern about a constant ankle angle and the torques opposing these rotations were measured. The dynamic stiffness transfer functions relating ankle angular position to ankle torque were calculated. Stiffness gain was flat at low frequencies, had a resonant valley at intermediate(More)
System identification techniques have been used to track changes in dynamic stiffness of the human ankle joint over a wide range of muscle contraction levels. Subjects lay supine on an experimental table with their left foot encased in a rigid, low-inertia cast which was fixed to an electro-hydraulic actuator operating as a position servo. Subjects(More)
The perception of viscosity was studied using the contralateral limb-matching procedure in which subjects adjusted the viscosity of a motor connected to the wrist of one (matching) arm until it was perceived to be the same as that of the motor attached to the other (reference) arm. Two servo-controlled electromagnetic linear motors with computer-controlled(More)
The perception of stiffness was studied in ten human subject using two servo-controlled electromagnetic linear motors with computer-controlled stiffness, one motor coupled to each wrist of the subject. Using the contralateral limb-matching procedure in which subjects adjusted the stiffness of the motor connected to one (matching) arm until it was perceived(More)
Representation, identification, and modeling are investigated for nonlinear biomedical systems. We begin by considering the conditions under which a nonlinear system can be represented or accurately approximated by a Volterra series (or functional expansion). Next, we examine system identification through estimating the kernels in a Volterra functional(More)
Systems that can be represented by a cascade of a dynamic linear subsystem preceded (Hammerstein cascade model) or followed (Wiener cascade model) by a static nonlinearity are considered. Various identification schemes that have been proposed for the Hammerstein and Wiener systems are critically reviewed with reference to the special problems that arise in(More)