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Fourteen unembalmed cadavers were subjected to 44 blunt lateral impacts at velocities of approximately 4.5, 6.7, or 9.4 m/s with a 15 cm flat circular interface on a 23.4 kg pendulum accelerated to impact speed by a pneumatic impactor. Chest and abdominal injuries consisted primarily of rib fractures, with a few cases of lung or liver laceration in the(More)
Models of driving have traditionally been couched either in terms of guidance and control or in terms of human factors. There is, however, a need for more powerful models that can match the rapidly growing complexity and sophistication of modern cars. Such models must provide coherent and consistent ways of describing driver performance to help engineers(More)
Experiments in our laboratory have documented that high-speed impact can cause severe injury to internal organs before either of the currently accepted chest injury criteria, which are based on spinal acceleration or chest compression, approach their tolerance limit. Those studies demonstrate an interdependence between the velocity of deformation and(More)
Abdominal injury induced by steering wheel contact at a velocity of 32 km/hr was investigated using anesthetized swine as the surrogate on a Hyge sled. The lower rim of the wheel was positioned 5 cm below the xyphoid. By varying wheel stiffness, wheel orientation, and column angle, resultant abdominal injury ranged from fatal or critical to minor or none.(More)
Loadings induced by deploying currently representative air bags were studied with driver surrogates (anesthetized swine) leaning against the system during inflation. Torso injury mechanisms were studied in a physiologic model, supported against a static steering wheel-mounted air bag system. Severe and extensive chest and abdominal injuries to the swine(More)
The effect of direct impact on the right ventricle was investigated in an anesthetized open-chest canine preparation. At each of five impact sites, direct local loading produced immediate ventricular asystole followed by varying degrees of AV conduction block, lasting 70 +/- 35 seconds. Sinus rhythm temporarily resumed in most cases for 30 +/- 25 seconds(More)
Lateral impacts of automobiles frequently result in abdominal injury to the occupants. While there have been important advances in the clinical management of this lateral impact trauma, the abdominal tolerance to injury from lateral impacts remains uncertain. The present report describes a series of 117 experiments in which the effect of changing the impact(More)
Fourteen anesthetized swine were subjected to blunt lateral impact at velocities of 4.3, 6.7, or 8.2 m/s with a 15 cm flat pendulum weighing 23.4 kg accelerated to impact speed by a power-assisted pneumatic impactor. Injuries consisted of laceration of the liver and spleen resulting in severe hemoperitoneum and death by ventricular fibrillation and(More)
Direct impact of the heart on the right ventricle induces transient ventricular tachycardia. Preconditioning the heart with a moderate dose of propranolol (0.4 mg/Kg, IV) did not affect impact-induced tachyarrhthmia although effective beta adrenergic blockage was evident. A high dose of propranolol (1.6 mg/Kg, IV) or a moderate dose of quinidine (3 mg/Kg,(More)
  • Ian V. Lau
  • Journal of biomechanical engineering
  • 1983
The effects of impact timing during the cardiac cycle on the sensitivity of the heart to impact-induced rupture was investigated in an open-chest animal model. Direct mechanical impacts were applied to two adjacent sites on the exposed left ventricular surface at the end of systole or diastole. Impacts at 5 m/s and a contact stroke of 5 cm at the end of(More)