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Familial juvenile polyposis is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by a predisposition to hamartomatous polyps and gastrointestinal cancer. Here it is shown that a subset of juvenile polyposis families carry germ line mutations in the gene SMAD4 (also known as DPC4), located on chromosome 18q21.1, that encodes a critical cytoplasmic mediator in the(More)
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified ten loci harboring common variants that influence risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). To enhance the power to identify additional CRC risk loci, we conducted a meta-analysis of three GWAS from the UK which included a total of 3,334 affected individuals (cases) and 4,628 controls followed by(More)
It is widely accepted that tumors are monoclonal in origin, arising from a mutation or series of mutations in a single cell and its descendants. The clonal origin of colonic adenomas and uninvolved intestinal mucosa from an XO/XY mosaic individual with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) was examined directly by in situ hybridization with Y chromosome(More)
Germline mutations in the LKB1 (STK11) gene (chromosome sub-band 19p13.3) cause characteristic hamartomas and pigmentation to develop in patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome carries an overall risk of cancer that may be up to 20 times that of the general population and Peutz-Jeghers patients are at increased risk of benign and(More)
Biallelic protein-truncating mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are prevalent in sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). Mutations may not be fully inactivating, instead producing WNT/β-catenin signalling levels 'just-right' for tumourigenesis. However, the spectrum of optimal APC genotypes accounting for both hits, and the influence of(More)
Classical models of tumorigenesis assume that the mutations which cause tumours to grow act in a cell-autonomous fashion. This is not necessarily true. Sometimes tumour cells may adopt genetic strategies that boost their own replication and which also influence other cells in the tumour, whether directly or as a side-effect. Tumour growth as a whole might(More)
Polymorphisms in CASP8 at 2q33.1 have been associated with the risk of developing cancer, specifically, the D302H variant (rs1045485) with breast cancer in the European population and the -652 6N ins/del promoter variant (rs3834129) with multiple tumours including colorectal cancer (CRC) in the Chinese population. We evaluated the relationship between -652(More)
BACKGROUND Current risk stratification in endometrial cancer (EC) results in frequent over- and underuse of adjuvant therapy, and may be improved by novel biomarkers. We examined whether POLE proofreading mutations, recently reported in about 7% of ECs, predict prognosis. METHODS We performed targeted POLE sequencing in ECs from the PORTEC-1 and -2 trials(More)
Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified the existence of numerous population-based cancer susceptibility loci, mechanistic insights remain limited, particularly for intergenic polymorphisms. Here, we show that polymorphism at a remote intergenic region on chromosome 11q13.3, recently identified as a susceptibility locus for renal(More)
The ability of p53 to regulate transcription is crucial for tumor suppression and implies that inherited polymorphisms in functional p53-binding sites could influence cancer. Here, we identify a polymorphic p53 responsive element and demonstrate its influence on cancer risk using genome-wide data sets of cancer susceptibility loci, genetic variation, p53(More)