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Herbivore attack is known to increase the emission of volatiles, which attract predators to herbivore-damaged plants in the laboratory and agricultural systems. We quantified volatile emissions from Nicotiana attenuata plants growing in natural populations during attack by three species of leaf-feeding herbivores and mimicked the release of five commonly(More)
BACKGROUND All plants in nature harbor a diverse community of endophytic bacteria which can positively affect host plant growth. Changes in plant growth frequently reflect alterations in phytohormone homoeostasis by plant-growth-promoting (PGP) rhizobacteria which can decrease ethylene (ET) levels enzymatically by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling plays a central role in transducing extracellular stimuli into intracellular responses, but its role in mediating plant responses to herbivore attack remains largely unexplored. When Manduca sexta larvae attack their host plant, Nicotiana attenuata, the plant's wound response is reconfigured at(More)
BACKGROUND AND METHODS Polyploidy results in genetic turmoil, much of which is associated with new phenotypes that result in speciation. Five independent lines of synthetic allotetraploid N. x obtusiata (N x o) were created from crosses between the diploid N. attenuata (Na) (male) and N. obtusifolia (No) (female) and the autotetraploids of Na (NaT) and No(More)
Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) catalyse the demethylation of pectin within plant cell walls, releasing methanol (MeOH) in the process. Thus far, PMEs have been found to be involved in diverse processes such as plant growth and development and defence responses against pathogens. Herbivore attack increases PME expression and activity and MeOH emissions in(More)
BACKGROUND Rapid herbivore-induced jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation is known to mediate many induced defense responses in vascular plants, but little is known about how JA bursts are metabolized and modified in response to repeated elicitations, are propagated throughout elicited leaves, or how they directly influence herbivores. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL(More)
We transformed the native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, to silence its lipoxygenase, hydroperoxide lyase, and allene oxide synthase genes in order to inhibit oxylipin signaling, known to mediate the plant's direct and indirect defenses. When planted into native habitats, lipoxygenase-deficient plants were more vulnerable to N. attenuata's adapted herbivores(More)
Plants produce metabolites that directly decrease herbivore performance, and as a consequence, herbivores are selected for resistance to these metabolites. To determine whether these metabolites actually function as defenses requires measuring the performance of plants that are altered only in the production of a certain metabolite. To date, the defensive(More)
Plants use many means to attract pollinators, including visual cues and odor. We investigated how nonpigment floral chemistry influences nectar removal, floral visitation, florivory, rates of outcrossing, and fitness through both male and female functions. We blocked expression of biosynthetic genes of the dominant floral attractant [benzyl acetone(More)
Leaves of red oak trees that had been defoliated by gypsy moth larvae during the previous year and again during the period of the study had higher values of tanning coefficients, total phenolics, hydrolyzable and condensed tannins, dry matter contents, and toughness than did leaves of undamaged trees. These changes may influence larval growth and alter the(More)