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· Root hairs are known to be highly important for uptake of sparingly soluble nutrients, particularly in nutrient deficient soils. Development of increasingly sophisticated mathematical models has allowed uptake characteristics to be quantified. However, modelling has been constrained by a lack of methods for imaging live root hairs growing in real soils. ·(More)
Plant root system architecture adapts to the prevailing soil environment and the distribution of nutrients. Many species respond to localised regions of high nutrient supply, found in the vicinity of fertiliser granules, by elevating branching density in these areas. However, observation of these adaptations is frequently limited to plants cultured in(More)
A seven axis haptic device, called the Freedom-7, is described in relation to its application to surgical training. The generality of its concept makes it also relevant to most other haptic applications. The design rationale is driven by a long list of requirements since such a device is meant t o interact with the human hand: uniform response, balanced(More)
In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the fibroblast focus is a key histological feature representing active fibroproliferation. On standard 2D pathologic examination, fibroblast foci are considered small, distinct lesions, although they have been proposed to form a highly interconnected reticulum as the leading edge of a "wave" of fibrosis. Here, we(More)
Synchrotron radiation computed laminography is applied to the three-dimensional micro-imaging of damage in large polymer composite plates with high spatial resolution. The influence of different experimental conditions is studied with respect to measurement time optimization, dose minimization and reduction of artefacts in the reconstructed images. Failures(More)
BACKGROUND Understanding the three-dimensional (3-D) micro-architecture of lung tissue can provide insights into the pathology of lung disease. Micro computed tomography (µCT) has previously been used to elucidate lung 3D histology and morphometry in fixed samples that have been stained with contrast agents or air inflated and dried. However,(More)
The architecture of biogenic structures can be highly influential in determining species contributions to major soil and sediment processes, but detailed 3-D characterisations are rare and descriptors of form and complexity are lacking. Here we provide replicate high-resolution micro-focus computed tomography (μ-CT) data for the complete burrow systems of(More)
Assessment of bone quality is an emerging solution for quantifying the effects of bone pathology or treatment. Perhaps one of the most important parameters characterising bone quality is the toughness behaviour of bone. Particularly, fracture toughness, is becoming a popular means for evaluating bone quality. The method is moving from a single value(More)
ESA is developing the Sentinel-1 European Radar Observatory, a constellation of two polar orbiting satellites for operational SAR applications. The two C-band radar satellites will provide continuous all-weather day/night imagery for user services. Advanced SAR applications require an accurate radiometric calibration of the end-to-end SAR system. The(More)