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BACKGROUND Antiretroviral therapy that reduces viral replication could limit the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in serodiscordant couples. METHODS In nine countries, we enrolled 1763 couples in which one partner was HIV-1-positive and the other was HIV-1-negative; 54% of the subjects were from Africa, and 50% of infected(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is indicated during tuberculosis treatment in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), but the timing for the initiation of ART when tuberculosis is diagnosed in patients with various levels of immune compromise is not known. METHODS We conducted an open-label, randomized study comparing(More)
To determine rates of survival, viral suppression, and immunologic change after 1 year on second-line antiretroviral therapy, we conducted a cohort study among 328 patients initiated on zidovudine, didanosine, and lopinavir/ritonavir. All patients who switched to standard second-line therapy at a large urban public-sector clinic in Johannesburg, South(More)
BACKGROUND Optimal timing of ART initiation for individuals presenting with AIDS-related OIs has not been defined. METHODS AND FINDINGS A5164 was a randomized strategy trial of "early ART"--given within 14 days of starting acute OI treatment versus "deferred ART"--given after acute OI treatment is completed. Randomization was stratified by presenting OI(More)
BACKGROUND Expanded access to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-poor settings is dependent on task shifting from doctors to other health-care providers. We compared outcomes of nurse versus doctor management of ART care for HIV-infected patients. METHODS This randomised non-inferiority trial was undertaken at two South African(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates and risk factors among individuals receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). DESIGN Observational cohort in Johannesburg, South Africa. METHODS Incident TB was classified as early (less than 6 months of ART) or late (greater than 6 months of ART) incident TB. CD4 cell counts, viral load, body mass(More)
BACKGROUND The South African national antiretroviral therapy roll-out program is entering its sixth year, with over 570,000 adults accessing treatment. HIV-1 drug resistance is a potential consequence of therapy. This study determined the pattern of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations after failure of first-line treatment regimens in South Africa. METHODS Two(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection in South Africa ranges from 4.8% to 17% using the standard marker surface antigen (hepatitis B surface antigen, HBsAg) for chronic active HBV infection. However, sensitive molecular techniques for detecting HBV DNA in serum can detect occult HBV infection. We report the first(More)
Associations have been reported between an MDR1 variant and responses to nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. We explored associations between MDR1, CYP2B6, and CYP3A polymorphisms and nevirapine hepatotoxicity. Among participants in a randomized study in South Africa (FTC-302), MDR1 3435C-->T was significantly associated with decreased risk of(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected South African patients (n=468) received blinded lamivudine or emtricitabine, stavudine, and either nevirapine or efavirenz (based on screening viral load). Baseline characteristics were analyzed in univariate and multivariate regression, to identify risk factors for hepatotoxicity (grade 3 or greater increase in(More)