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Free radical production occurs continuously in all cells as part of normal cellular function. However, excess free radical production originating from endogenous or exogenous sources might play a role in many diseases. Antioxidants prevent free radical induced tissue damage by preventing the formation of radicals, scavenging them, or by promoting their(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of age-related maculopathy in an older population from 7 European countries. METHODS Randomly sampled people 65 years and older were invited to an eye examination in centers across 7 European countries (Norway, Estonia, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Greece, and Spain). Fundus images of each eye were graded at a single(More)
We tested the hypothesis that dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) function would be compromised in acute mountain sickness (AMS) subsequent to a hypoxia-mediated alteration in systemic free radical metabolism. Eighteen male lowlanders were examined in normoxia (21% O(2)) and following 6 h passive exposure to hypoxia (12%(More)
Epidemiological evidence has revealed that an elevated plasma homocysteine level (hyperhomocysteinemia) confers an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and neural tube defects. Hyperhomocysteinemia is caused by both nutritional (e.g. folate, vitamins B(6) and B(12)) and genetic factors, including functional polymorphisms of key enzymes involved in(More)
A modestly elevated total plasma homocysteine concentration (tHcy) is generally accepted as an independent and graded risk factor for various pathologies, including vascular diseases, neural tube defects, Alzheimer disease, and pregnancy complications. We analyzed 5 common functional polymorphisms in enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism (ie,(More)
BACKGROUND PON1, an arylesterase, associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL), protects low density lipoprotein (LDL) against oxidative modification. Common polymorphisms PON1 55 (L/M) and 192 (Q/R) in the PON1 gene associate with atherosclerosis and heart disease. Because long-lived people seem protected from premature vascular death, we conducted a(More)
We studied the plasma chain-breaking antioxidants alpha carotene, beta carotene, lycopene, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E and a measure of total antioxidant capacity, TAC, in 79 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 37 patients with vascular dementia (VaD), 18 patients with Parkinson's disease and dementia (PDem), and 58 matching controls, together with(More)
OBJECTIVES To study the training effects of eight weeks of stair climbing on Vo2max, blood lipids, and homocysteine in sedentary, but otherwise healthy young women. METHODS Fifteen women (mean (SD) age 18.8 (0.7) years) were randomly assigned to control (n = 7) or stair climbing (n = 8) groups. Stair climbing was progressively increased from one ascent a(More)
Mild hyperhomocysteinaemia is a major risk factor for vascular disease and neural tube defects (NTDs), conferring an approximately three-fold relative risk for each condition. It has several possible causes: heterozygosity for rare loss of function mutations in the genes for 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) or cystathionine-beta-synthase(More)
An increase in oxidative stress may contribute to the development of diabetic complications. The key aqueous-phase chain-breaking antioxidant ascorbate is known to be deficient in diabetes, and we have therefore investigated the effects of ascorbate supplementation on oxidative stress in the streptozotocin diabetic rat. Markers of lipid peroxidation(More)