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OBJECTIVES To establish the incision length for thyroid surgery that optimizes access and cosmesis. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING Prospective study from January 2003 to June 2004. All thyroidectomies were included. Exclusion criteria were concomitant neck dissections, previous surgery, and those performed endoscopically. The first 40 cases were attempted(More)
Understanding external factors that determine cellular phenotypic responses is of key interest in the field of biomaterials. Currently, material surface characteristics, protein adsorption and cellular phenotypic responses are all considered to be interrelated and ultimately determine the biocompatibility of materials. The exact nature of the relationship(More)
Animal production and health (APH) is an important sector in the world economy, representing a large proportion of the budget of all member states in the European Union and in other continents. APH is a highly competitive sector with a strong emphasis on innovation and, albeit with country to country variations, on scientific research. Proteomics (the study(More)
With the growing interest in clinical interventions that involve medical devices, the role for new biomaterials in modern medicine is currently expanding at a phenomenal rate. Failure of most implant materials stems from an inability to predict and control biological phenomena, such as protein adsorption and cell interaction, resulting in an inappropriate(More)
Biomaterials interact with the biological environment at their surface, making accurate biophysical characterization of the surface crucially important for understanding subsequent biological effects. In this study, the surface of polystyrene (PS) was systematically altered in order to determine the effect of plasma treatment and surface roughness on cell(More)
Rattus norvegicus is a natural reservoir host for pathogenic species of Leptospira. Experimentally infected rats remain clinically normal, yet persistently excrete large numbers of leptospires from colonized renal tubules via urine, despite a specific host immune response. Whilst persistent renal colonization and shedding is facilitated in part by(More)