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Vascular development begins when mesodermal cells differentiate into endothelial cells, which then form primitive vessels. It has been hypothesized that endothelial-specific gene expression may be regulated combinatorially, but the transcriptional mechanisms governing specificity in vascular gene expression remain incompletely understood. Here, we identify(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiac hypertrophy is a common response to pressure overload and is associated with increased mortality. Mechanical stress in the heart results in the activation of the small GTPase ras and the Raf-1/MEK/ERK signaling cascade in addition to other signaling pathways. METHODS AND RESULTS In an attempt to determine the requirement for the(More)
The endocardium, the endothelial lining of the heart, plays complex and critical roles in heart development, particularly in the formation of the cardiac valves and septa, the division of the truncus arteriosus into the aortic and pulmonary trunks, the development of Purkinje fibers that form the cardiac conduction system, and the formation of trabecular(More)
T he rapid pace of technological development has brought a wealth of diagnostic and therapeutic options to the care of patients. These new diagnostic and therapeutic tools have dramatically altered medical care but have come with a steep price tag, and it is not clear that the improvement in the quality of care is proportional to the cost of the medical(More)
BACKGROUND The presence of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) in congenital heart disease (CHD) patients is not well described. Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common cyanotic CHD associated with overall good long-term survival after palliation. Since MVP is more often identified in adults and TOF patients are now surviving longer, we thus sought to perform(More)
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