Ian Ross Munro

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The validity of nine neoclassical formulas of facial proportions was tested in a group of 153 young adult North American Caucasians. Age-related qualities were investigated in six of the nine canons in 100 six-year-old, 105 twelve-year-old, and 103 eighteen-year-old healthy subjects divided equally between the sexes. The two canons found to be valid most(More)
Crouzon syndrome, an autosomal dominant condition characterized by craniosynostosis, ocular proptosis and midface hypoplasia, is associated with mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) (refs 1-3). For example, we have identified 10 different mutations in the FGFR2 extracellular immunoglobulin III (IgIII) domain in 50% (16/32) of our Crouzon(More)
With the introduction of smaller plating systems, many surgeons have adopted their use for craniofacial procedures in infants and small children. We have encountered some previously undescribed problems associated with the use of plates and screws in infants and children. These problems can be classified into three general areas: 1) Plate displacement. This(More)
The relationships between measurements of the lower lip, chin, upper lip, and lower half and lower third of the face were studied. Fifteen new indices were formed with the help of eleven vertical linear, one horizontal linear, and two surface-arc measurements in the area. Neoclassic canons related to the lower face were not confirmed. On the average, the(More)
The noses of 34 attractive young North American Caucasian women were analyzed quantitatively, based on 19 nasal measurements (6 single and 7 paired linear measurements, 3 angles, and 3 inclinations) and 15 craniofacial measurements (10 linear measurements and 5 inclinations) taken directly from the face of the women. The relationship between the nasal(More)
Eleven patients with Binder's syndrome (nasomaxillary hypoplasia) have been treated by the Toronto Craniofacial Team from 1972 to 1977. The treatment has consisted of onlay bone and cartilage grafts to the nose and perialar region for young children, or when the occlusion is normal. However, cases with severe malocclusion were treated by a Le Fort I and/or(More)
Internal carotid arteries of unusual size and tortuosity were found before or at the time of pharyngeal flap surgery in three children who had the velocardiofacial syndrome with velopharyngeal insufficiency. In two cases, medial displacement of the arteries prevented surgery, and in the other, hypernasality persisted because only a narrow, asymmetrical flap(More)
A death from cyanide poisoning during operation was attributable to the use of approximately 400 mg (10 mg per Kg) sodium nitroprusside as an hypotensive agent. Autopsy cyanide levels of 0.5 mg per cent in blood and 0.3 mg per cent in urine and thiocyanate levels too low to measure in either, suggest an abnormality of cyanide metabolism. The lethal dose of(More)
We report the experiences in 6 major craniofacial centers, with similar teams but in different parts of the world, in a total of 793 craniofacial operations. The mortality rate was 1.6%. Complications developed in 16.5% of the cases (including infections in 4.4%). This surgery has many potential advantages, not least of which is its psychosocial effects on(More)