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Continuing population and consumption growth will mean that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years. Growing competition for land, water, and energy, in addition to the overexploitation of fisheries, will affect our ability to produce food, as will the urgent requirement to reduce the impact of the food system on the(More)
Disease resistance (R) genes are found in plants as either simple (single allelic series) loci, or more frequently as complex loci of tandemly repeated genes. These different loci are likely to be under similar evolutionary forces from pathogens, but the contrast between them suggests important differences in mechanisms associated with DNA structure and(More)
Resistance responses that plants deploy in defence against pathogens are often triggered following a recognition event mediated by resistance (R) genes. The encoded R proteins usually contain a nucleotide-binding site (NB) and a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain. They are further classified into those that contain an N-terminal coiled coil (CC) motif or a(More)
We are working to determine the role of the Arabidopsis phytoalexin, camalexin, in protecting the plant from pathogen attack by isolating phytoalexin-deficient (pad) mutants in the accession Columbia (Col-0) and examining their response to pathogens. Mutations in PAD1, PAD2, and PAD4 caused enhanced susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas(More)
Fifteen isolates of the biotrophic oomycete Peronospora parasitica (downy mildew) were obtained from a population of Arabidopsis thaliana plants that established naturally in a garden the previous year. They exhibited phenotypic variation in a set of 12 Arabidopsis accessions that suggested that the parasite population consisted of at least six pathotypes.(More)
Despite a significant growth in food production over the past half-century, one of the most important challenges facing society today is how to feed an expected population of some nine billion by the middle of the 20th century. To meet the expected demand for food without significant increases in prices, it has been estimated that we need to produce 70– 100(More)
A biotrophic parasite often depends on an intrinsic ability to suppress host defenses in a manner that will enable it to infect and successfully colonize a susceptible host. If the suppressed defenses otherwise would have been effective against alternative pathogens, it follows that primary infection by the "suppressive" biotroph potentially could enhance(More)
About 1000 Brassica oleracea accessions were evaluated in glasshouse tests for response to Plasmodiophora brassicae (clubroot). Resistance was confirmed in some north and west European kales and cabbage. A new source of resistance in cabbage, from Eire, is reported. Most other accessions were highly susceptible but lower levels of susceptibility were(More)
Although food prices in major world markets are at or near a historical low, there is increasing concern about food security-the ability of the world to provide healthy and environmentally sustainable diets for all its peoples. This article is an introduction to a collection of reviews whose authors were asked to explore the major drivers affecting the food(More)