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Most animal species are infected with multiple parasite species; however, the role of interspecific parasite interactions in influencing parasite dynamics and shaping parasite communities has been unclear. Although laboratory studies have found evidence of cross-immunity, immunosuppression and competition, analyses of hosts in the field have generally(More)
Male contests for access to receptive females are thought to have selected for the larger male body size and conspicuous weaponry frequently observed in mammalian species. However, when females copulate with multiple males within an oestrus, male reproductive success is a function of both pre- and postcopulatory strategies. The relative importance of these(More)
In most animal species, males are predicted to compete for reproductive opportunities, while females are expected to choose between potential mates. However, when males' rate of reproduction is constrained, or females vary widely in 'quality', male mate choice is also predicted to occur. Such conditions exist in the promiscuous mating system of feral Soay(More)
Adaptive decisions concerning the scheduling of reproduction in an animal's lifetime, including age at maturity and clutch or litter size, should depend on an animal's body condition or state. In this state-dependent case, we are concerned with the optimization of sequences of actions and so dynamic optimization techniques are appropriate. Here we show how(More)
Female promiscuity is thought to have resulted in the evolution of male behaviours that confer advantages in the sperm competition that ensues. In mammalian species, males can gain a post-copulatory advantage in this sperm 'raffle' by inseminating females at the optimal time relative to ovulation, leading to the prediction that males should preferentially(More)
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