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INTRODUCTION 4 1. OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals are periodically reviewed in light of 5 scientific progress, changing regulatory needs, and animal welfare considerations. The first 6 Test Guideline (TG) for the determination of skin sensitisation in the mouse, the Local 7 Lymph Node Assay (LLNA; TG 429) was adopted in 2002 (1). The details of(More)
Current approaches to skin sensitisation risk assessment are dependent upon the availability of information regarding two fundamental parameters. Firstly, data relating to the relative skin sensitising potency of the chemical, and secondly, information regarding likely conditions of human exposure. During the past two decades, much has been achieved in(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Interleukin (IL)-1 is a key mediator of inflammatory and host defence responses and its effects in the brain are mediated primarily via effects on glia. IL-1 induces release of inflammatory mediators such as IL-6 from glia via the type-1 receptor (IL-1R1) and established signalling mechanisms including mitogen-activated protein(More)
There is a growing interest in the development of methods to characterize the allergenic properties of novel proteins, particularly those expressed by transgenic crop plants. Approaches to the direct evaluation of allergenic potential have focused generally on the ability of proteins to induce antibody (particularly IgE antibody) after systemic(More)
BACKGROUND Within the toxicology community, considerable effort is directed toward the development of alternative methods for skin sensitization testing. The availability of high-quality, relevant, and reliable in vivo data regarding skin sensitization is essential for the effective evaluation of alternative methodologies. Ideally, data derived from humans(More)
The induction of respiratory sensitization in guinea pigs to diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (MDI), a known human respiratory allergen, has been investigated and different routes of exposure compared. Guinea pigs were exposed to MDI by i.d. injection, by topical application or by inhalation. Pulmonary hypersensitivity was measured subsequently as a(More)
In mice, the roles of cytokines in the initiation of epidermal Langerhans' cell (LC) migration are well documented; however, the mechanism of this response in humans is less well defined. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the contribution of interleukin (IL)-1beta to human epidermal LC migration and to define further the mechanisms of(More)
The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five(More)
For years, methods have been available for the predictive identification of chemicals that possess the intrinsic potential to cause skin sensitization. However, many have proven less suitable for the determination of relative sensitizing potency. In this respect, the local lymph node assay (LLNA) has been shown to have a number of important advantages.(More)