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The goal of eliminating animal testing in the predictive identification of chemicals with the intrinsic ability to cause skin sensitization is an important target, the attainment of which has recently been brought into even sharper relief by the EU Cosmetics Directive and the requirements of the REACH legislation. Development of alternative methods requires(More)
BACKGROUND Effective toxicologic evaluation of skin sensitization requires that potential contact allergens are identified and that the likely risks of sensitization among exposed populations are assessed. By definition, chemicals that are classified as contact sensitizers have the capacity to cause allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in humans. However, this(More)
It is clear that contact allergens vary substantially with regard to the relative potency with which they are able to induce skin sensitisation. Considerations of potency will in the future become a significant factor in the classification of skin sensitising chemicals. It is therefore appropriate to establish what is known of potency and thresholds in the(More)
BACKGROUND Within the toxicology community, considerable effort is directed toward the development of alternative methods for skin sensitization testing. The availability of high-quality, relevant, and reliable in vivo data regarding skin sensitization is essential for the effective evaluation of alternative methodologies. Ideally, data derived from humans(More)
Current approaches to skin sensitisation risk assessment are dependent upon the availability of information regarding two fundamental parameters. Firstly, data relating to the relative skin sensitising potency of the chemical, and secondly, information regarding likely conditions of human exposure. During the past two decades, much has been achieved in(More)
The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a method used for the prospective identification in mice of chemicals that have the potential to cause skin sensitization. We report here the results of the second and final phase of an international trial in which the performance of the assay has been evaluated using seven test materials in five independent(More)
The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a method for the identification of skin sensitizing chemicals in which activity is measured as a function of proliferative responses induced in draining lymph nodes following topical exposure of mice to the test material. More recently, the LLNA has also been used for the determination of relative skin sensitizing(More)
The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a murine model developed to evaluate the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. The LLNA is an alternative approach to traditional guinea pig methods and in comparison provides important animal welfare benefits. The assay relies on measurement of events induced during the induction phase of skin sensitization,(More)
The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission’s Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five(More)
The validation of alternative methods is a relatively new activity in toxicology. The local lymph node assay (LLNA), a novel method for the identification of chemicals that have the potential to cause skin sensitization, was the first test to pass through the formal regulatory validation process established in the USA under the auspices of ICCVAM, the(More)