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Passive surveillance using ICD codes for hospital discharges has been used to estimate the incidence of abusive head trauma (AHT) utilizing ICD-9-CM, but not ICD-10, codes. There have been no incidence estimates of AHT in Canada where ICD-10 codes have been used since 2002. The Discharge Abstract Database from the Canadian Institute of Health Information(More)
OBJECTIVE This article describes the epidemiology of child pedestrian fatalities in British Columbia using data generated by the province's Child Death Review Unit, to demonstrate the unique capacity of child death review to provide an ecological understanding of child mortality and catalyse evidence based, multi-level prevention strategies. METHODS All(More)
There is considerable confusion about the nature of indicators, their use in the injury field and surprisingly little discussion about these important tools. To date discussions of injury indicators have focused on the content and presentation of health outcome measures and on the dearth of data on exposure measures. Whereas these are valuable measures and(More)
INTRODUCTION The purpose of this research was to take the initial step in developing valid indicators that reflect the injury issues facing First Nations and Inuit children and youth in Canada. METHODS Using a modified-Delphi process, relevant expert and community stakeholders rated each indicator on its perceived usefulness and ability to prompt action(More)
In June of 2002, a revision to part of the Road Traffic Act drastically increased the penalties for drinking and driving offences. Most notably, the legal BAC limit for driving lowered from 0.05 mg/ml to 0.03 mg/ml. The rationale for the new lower BAC limit in Japan was predicated on the assumption that drinking drivers will comply with the new lower limit(More)
The objective of this research was to describe the use and incorrect use of child restraint systems in Manitoba, Canada. In 2004, a team of inspectors made up of Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers and trained car seat technicians from the Manitoba child seat coalition conducted a descriptive survey of types and frequency of child restraint systems'(More)
UNLABELLED The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize and appraise the evidence of benefits of second-eye cataract extraction for visual function, patient-reported quality of life, falls, and driving ability among the elderly. We conducted a comprehensive search in MEDLINE using "surgery," "cataract extraction," "second eye," and "bilateral." Ten(More)
BACKGROUND Demographic data in North America, Europe, Asia, Australia and New Zealand suggest a rapid growth in the number of persons over the age of 65 years as the baby boomer generation passes retirement age. As older adults make up an increasing proportion of the population, they are an important consideration when designing future evidence-based(More)
The need for non-animal data to assess skin sensitisation properties of substances, especially cosmetics ingredients, has spawned the development of many in vitro methods. As it is widely believed that no single method can provide a solution, the Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force has defined a three-phase framework for the development of a(More)
Experimental studies in animals suggest that alcohol may influence pathophysiologic response to injury mechanisms. However, biological evidence for the alcohol-injury severity relationship provides conflicting results. The purpose of our retrospective cross-sectional study in 2,323 people was to assess whether blood alcohol level (BAC) adversely influences(More)