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The cell-, tissue-, sex- and developmental stage-specific expression profiles of five members of the flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) family, FMO1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, were investigated in 129/SV mice, using isoform-specific antisense RNA probes. In situ hybridization localized FMO1 and 5 mRNAs to the perivenous, and FMO 2, 3 and 4 mRNAs to the periportal,(More)
Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) are NADPH-dependent flavoenzymes that catalyze the oxidation of heteroatom centers in numerous drugs and xenobiotics. FMO2, or "pulmonary" FMO, one of five forms of the enzyme identified in mammals, is expressed predominantly in lung and differs from other FMOs in that it can catalyze the N-oxidation of certain(More)
The use of antibiotics in food animals selects for bacteria resistant to antibiotics used in humans, and these might spread via the food to humans and cause human infection, hence the banning of growth-promoters. The actual danger seems small, and there might be disadvantages to human and to animal health. The low dosages used for growth promotion are an(More)
Following the ban of all food animal growth-promoting antibiotics by Sweden in 1986, the European Union banned avoparcin in 1997 and bacitracin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin in 1999. Three years later, the only attributable effect in humans has been a diminution in acquired resistance in enterococci isolated from human faecal carriers. There has(More)
We have previously described the isolation and sequencing of cDNA clones encoding flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) 1 and 4 of man [Dolphin, C., Shephard, E. A., Povey, S., Palmer, C. N. A., Ziegler, D. M., Ayesh, R., Smith, R. L. & Phillips, I. R. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 12379-12385; Dolphin, C., Shephard E. A., Povey, S., Smith, R. L. & Phillips,(More)
The flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) are a family of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes that are expressed in a species- and tissue-specific manner. FMO2 expression has been observed in pulmonary tissue from several species, but not human. Two human FMO2 point mutations have been reported: a cytosine to thymidine transition at position 1414 resulting in(More)
The effects of addition of a range of organic amendments (biosolids, spent mushroom compost, green waste compost and green waste-derived biochar), at two rates, on some key chemical, physical and microbial properties of bauxite-processing residue sand were studied in a laboratory incubation study. Levels of exchangeable cations were not greatly affected by(More)
A nomenclature based on comparisons of amino acid sequences is proposed for the members of the mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) gene family. This nomenclature is based on evidence of a single gene family composed of five genes. The percentage identities of the amino acid sequences of the five known forms of mammalian FMO are between 52 and(More)
The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activates the expression of a reporter gene attached to the phenobarbital-response element (PBRE) of the cytochrome P450 2B1 (CYP2B1) gene in response to the barbiturate phenobarbital and the plant product picrotoxin. The xenobiotic-mediated increase in transactivation occurs in transfected primary hepatocytes and(More)
The mechanisms by which different classes of chemicals induce the same cytochrome P450 (CYP) or the same chemical differentially induces more than one CYP are not well understood. We show that in primary hepatocytes and in vivo in liver (transfected by particle-mediated delivery) two orphan nuclear receptors, constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X(More)