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OBJECTIVES Intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus are recognized surrogates for esophageal adenocarcinoma risk. While few would argue with the "hunt for dysplasia," there is a divide regarding the usefulness of the histological confirmation of intestinal metaplasia in endoscopically apparent long segment Barrett's esophagus. We(More)
A logistics chain in the South African sugar industry has been defined as the different agents responsible for growing, hauling and milling sugarcane. Inefficiencies in a logistics chain can be broadly classified into two categories: ! Individual inefficiencies associated with an inappropriate technology and/or the management practices of individual members(More)
Barrett's metaplasia (BM) is an early lesion in the progression from oesophageal inflammation through dysplasia to the development of Barrett's adenocarcinoma (BA). Previous work indicates that BM and BA are associated with reduced E-cadherin expression and increased cytoplasmic/nuclear pools of its associated protein beta-catenin. beta-catenin participates(More)
Ecosystem indicators are part of a larger process that considers policy-level goals for an ecosystem. Other elements include operational objectives and performance criteria. The eastern Bering Sea is advanced in application of ecosystem-based considerations to the management of marine resources. For instance, an Ecosystem Considerations appendix is prepared(More)
The Lift Up Oakland Coalition, an alliance of community, labor, small business and faith organizations, has placed an initiative on the Oakland November 2014 ballot that would establish a minimum wage of $12.25 for businesses in the city starting March 1, 2015. This study examines the effects of a $12.25 minimum wage on Oakland workers and businesses.(More)
(2014), as part of a continuing series of policy briefs that the Center on Wage and Employment Dynamics is issuing on local minimum wage policies. Employment conduct an impact study of his proposal to establish a city-wide minimum wage of $13.25 an hour by 2017, phased in over three steps. This report therefore examines the effects of the minimum wage(More)
Using a budget-based approach to measuring affordability, this issue brief explores whether the subsidies available through the Affordable Care Act are enough to make health insurance affordable for low-income families. Drawing from the Consumer Expenditure Survey, the authors assess how much "room" people have in their budget, after paying for other(More)
This paper explores the importance of a focus on the fundamental goals of resilience and adaptive capacity in the governance of uncertain fishery systems, particularly in the context of climate change. Climate change interacts strongly with fishery systems, and adds to the inherent uncertainty in those complex, interlinked systems. The reality of these(More)
IOC WMO UNEP The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariats of UNESCO and IOC concerning the legal status of any country or territory, or its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of the frontiers of any country or territory.(More)